Robertson’s Landmarks excerpt – Gibraltar Point Lighthouse

Robertson’s Landmarks excerpt – Gibraltar Point Lighthouse

Robertson’s Landmarks of Toronto – A Collection of Historical Sketches – excerpt Gibraltar Point Lighthouse

  • Created by: J. Ross Robertson, Toronto Telegram
  • Date: 1908
  • Provenance: Scanned by Ted English from an original copy; PDF by Eric Zhelka
  • Notes: Excerpt: pages 363-391. CHAPTER LXXV. The LIGHTHOUSE ON THE ISLAND, The Story of the Life of the Light and Its Keepers for the Past One Hundred Years.

Lighthouse Keepers’ Cottages:


ROBERTSON’S
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO
A COLLECTION OF
HISTORICAL SKETCHES
OF THE OLD
TOWN OF YORK
From 1792 until 1837
AND OF
Toronto from 1834 to 1908
ALSO
Three Hundred and Thirty Engravings of Places and Scenes
in Toronto or in Connection with the City.
PRICE TWO DOLLARS.
FIFTH SERIES-COMPLETE.
REPUBLISHED FROM THE TORONTO EVENING TELEGRAM.
TORONTO:
J. ROSS ROBERTSON.
1908.
Entered according to the Aot of the Parliament of Canada in the year one thousand nine hundrel and eight, by J. Ross ROBERTSON, at the Department of Agriculture. Dilawa.
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
CHAPTER LXXV.
363
A LIGHTKEEPER’S WORK. All inland lighthouses
lighthouses are pretty much alike. There is not much of life around them if they are away from the centres of population, but if close to a large city, town or village. there is always a chance for the light- keeper to have pleasant hours with others of humankind.
True, the great gales that sweep the Atlantic seaboard are monsters in madness compared with the storms of our inland sea. The lightkeeper on the seacoasts housed in his granite bome, or in his ocean-tossed light-ship, may well shudder as
as the worried waters roll mountains high and send ships to their port or to their doom.
But the duties of our inland light- keepers are on more favored lines, for
THE LIGHTHOUSE ON THE ISLAND their labor is not for more than nine
The Story of the Life of the Light and Its Keepers for the Past One Hun- dred Years.
Hundred years of history in record of Island light. Memorable events of past century seen from ancient bea- con Tower that guards Toronto Har bor. Mariners of countless voyages owe much to kindly glare of old stone lighthouse. Many storms have raged beneath this rugged pile, while more than once wreckage has been littered along the Island sands.
A LANDMARK!
Yes, just a landmark-but the land. mark of all the landmarks, for it is the first and only example of stone and mortar, the first structure that re- mains intact of the skill of the pion- eers who used the twenty-four inch gauge, the common gavel and the chisel the stonemasons and their helpers-the stone-setters and mortar- mixers-Who worked when this city was Little York, one hundred years ago.
A landmark, well, whatever of re. gard we have for other landmarks not so bronzed with age, there is none that sail back into the memories of long ago so quickly as that of the light house, which has some Httle of dignity about it as it stands at the south-west angle of Toronto Island within sight of the great fresh-water sea that is known the world over as “Lake On tario.”
months in the year and oftener of that number four may fairly be reckoned as blessed with summer weather.
The duties of these men are not heavy, and save and except the duty of lighting the lantern at sundown and extinguishing it at sunrise, and that the lantern and all the property he kept in good order and condition, there is nothing much to vary the diary of the day’s doings in the life of a keeper.
WHEN LAKE ONTARIO IS ANGRY.
But old Ontario can set the pace
when the wind is in the right humor, and it’s an odd summer that the mer maids. if there be any in these waters, don’t raise their graceful hands and say to the sailormen: “Back to your homies to-day, for this is our day, and we want Ontario for ourselves.” Yes, more than once in a season har
steamers and other craft that were built to bid defiance to the elements. to laugh at disaster, to play with the vind had to retreat in their attempt wind and the water and tl. whirl-
to cross the lake or take the chances of wreck and all its terrors.
A POINT OF VANTAGE. Stand with the writer on the gallery of the lighthouse lantern at the Point on an October or November day. Just listen to the moanings of the wind. For days it has been doing the cyclone act down in Texas, and having cleaned up everything in sight in the “Lone Star State,” promptly sprints north at a fifty mile an hour gait, and says
W
364
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
good morning” to Lake Ontario, Just at its south-west angle.
Then the water begins to move about and the rollers come thundering down and across the lake, battering the sand shores at the Lighthouse Point, and simply scooping in a morn- Ing’s work from fifty to a hundred- yes, a couple of hundred feet of shore, and sweeping it away as fast as the water will carry it.
A SOU-WESTER AT WORK. Then this sou-wester looks for a change of route, for it is a tourist wing in a way, but not “personally conducted.” It turns to the north-east, and then loops the loop and rakes the south and west shores of the lake which are better able to stand the racket than the sand covered front of Toronto Island.
Then there is an east gale, and wind from that direction is not healthy, for either man on sea or man on shore, On Lake Ontario it simply starts its journey in the east-perhaps it has played pranks on the north part of New York State opposite Kingston, and then, when the full power is on, it takes a running jump up the lake and chops off an acre of sand from Scar- boro Beach, and deposits it at the eastern gap, where the piers catch it, and after this it works its way west and does the south shore of the island 10 great amount of good.
STORMS THAT SCARE,
.
It is the sou’-west and east storms that put a scare into the steamer or sailor men, especially the former, for when the wind is the south-west or east steamer men have to be careful, east steamer men have to be careful, for crossing the lake means that their crafts are in Le trough of the sea, and roll to the limit, just as if they were in a cradle created by the storm. A north gale does no great damage, and even a strong gale from the sonth, does not worry the mariners.
But Toronto Bay suffers from an east gale, for the bay is narrow at its east end and wide at its west end. In a strong east gale the water piles up and starts to run west at a rapid rate and dashes against the west sandbar that has formed south of the western entrance, and so the bay is to a certain extent dangerous for small craft when the wind is in this direction. But on the other hand, with
a gale from the west the bay is never rough, for it has the protection of the western sandbar, which year after year appears to increase in width, the gain, of course, being on its western shore.
CRAFT ON TORONTO BAY.
But the Toronto Bay is a good bay for boating, for it is recorded that there are at least 200 yachts, 125 ding- bies,
skiff 200 sailing skiffs. 400 rowing
skiffs, 200 motor boats,
motor boats, 10 steam yachts, and, about 50 steamers. that from one end of the summer to the other are navigated in and out of the harbor.
A BOOKFUL OF STORY. What a bookful of story, pleasant and otherwise. for mariners. could the old beacon at the Point relate if it bad the gift of speech.
How it saw Lieut-Governor Gore. who was appointed 25th August, 1806 on the 17th Oct.. 1811, embark in the “Toronto Yacht and attempt to leave the harbor for Niagara, but for a sou-‘wester that was doing past mas ter’s work, so that the Governor spent the night with the commandant of Toronto garrison.
L
How it saw the same Governor sail round the Point in 1811 in the Lady Gore,” on his way to Kingston on a four years’ leave of absence in Eng land-He returned in 1815.
How it saw in the summer of 1812 the famous “Toronto Yacht” that did such good service between Toronto and Niagara wrecked off the south shore of the then peninsula and near to the position of the light. the Lighthouse through a mistake as
Point on board the ”
How it saw Gen. Brock pass the Point on board the “General Simcoe,” a transport, which also carried 12 guns, June the 27th, 1812, for war had been on his way from York to Niagara on June the 27th, 1812. for war had been declared on June 19th and the news came to Canada on the evening of June 25th.
How it saw the “Toronto Yacht”
with General Brock on board sail from York for Niagara on the 7th July, 1812. after having received word that war had been declared.
How it saw the American fleet. un- der Commodore Chancy, on the morn ing of the 27th April. 1813 lie off the Humber Bay and coming west to
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO,
365
wards the Old Fort, bombard the fort special striped signal flag that was al- and town of York.
ways hoisted by the lightkeeper when- ever the “Richmond Packet” hove in ‘sight.
How it saw the American fleet ap pear off the Lighthouse Point about 7 a.m. on the 27th July, 1813, and bom. bard the Town of York.
How it saw on the afternoon of July 31st the American fleet round the point for the second time and pay a visit to York.
How it saw the “Simcoe” transport return to York on the 14th October, 1813, filled with prisoners taken at Queenston Heights, and one of the number, Winfield Scott, afterwards the distinguished American general.
FIRST ONTARIO STEAMER. How it saw for the first time on Friday, 6th June, 1816, smoke pour-
How it saw on the 5th December, 1820, the “Lady Sarah Maitland” schooner pass into the harbor in
safety, after a perilous voyage from Prescott to York.
How it saw the “Frontenac” steam- er, with all flags flying, enter the bar- bor on 9th June, 1826, with the 70th Highland Regiment on board.
How it saw the steamer “Canada” plying between York and Niagara, with Hugh Richardson As master struggle with а great southeast storm in July, 1827, breaking her main shaft, and remaining listless in mid- lake, while on the way to York.
OLD BUILDINGS AT THE LIGHTHOUSE.
The original bouse of the Lightkeeper, erented 1908.
Durnan’s Workshop.
ing from the funnel of the “Frontenac,” the first steamer that plowed the waters of the lake, on her way to York harbor.
How it saw the “Richmond Packet,” a sailing vessel, which had “excellent accommodation for ladies, gentlemen, and other passengers,” salute the lighthouse as it passed on its first voyage from York to Niagara on July 24th, 1820,
How it appreciated on the same day the presentation of a set of colors to Captain Oates, and the receipt of a
How it saw on the night of the 29th September, 1827, the sky across the lake reddened by the flames that burned the pioneer “Frontenac.” as she drifted she drifted from Niagara
from Niagara dock and river into the lake waters.
How it saw in June. 1828, the “Al ciope” steamer, built at Niagara, tc succeed the “Frontenac” salute the Hghthouse flag and enter York Har bor for the first time.
How the beacon was puzzled as it read the name “Alciope” on the paddle- box as the steamer passed the Point.
366
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
“Surely,” thought the beacon, “it is a ship painter’s misinterpretation of the word “Alcyone,” for there’s no such word as “Alciope” in any standard dic- tionary that I have ever seen.” The beacon was right, for “Alcyone,” and not “Alciope,” was the daughter of the King of the Winds, Aeolus, who mar- ried Ceyx, who was drowned when go- ing to consult the oracle of Apollo at Claros. Alcyone, when she found her husband’s body washed on the sea shore, threw herself in the sea. To reward their mutual affection, the gods metamorphosed them into halcyons or king fishers, and decreed that the sea should remain calm while these birds laid their eggs in nests that floated on the sea, and to have the power of eharming the winds and calming the waves during incubation, so that the owner of the “Alciope” thought that the name would charm the waters of Ontario even if his painter had “miss layed” in the spelling.
the
How it saw the “William Fourth,” built at Gananoque in 1832, the only four funnel steamer on the lake, make, in 1833, her first trip from
Prescott to York.
How it saw Sir Peregrine Maitland on board His Majesty’s yacht “Bull. trog,” while on his way from Kings ton to Niagara in Oct., 1828, obey the commands of a south-wester, and seek safety in York Harbor.
How it saw the first “Chief Justice Robinson,” built by Capt. Hugh Rich- ardson for the Niagara route, enter Toronto Harbor in 1842.
How it saw the Magnet of the old Royal Mail Line-the only one built iron-making her first trip in the spring of 1847 to Niagara.
How it saw the “Ocean Wave” leave Toronto on the 28th
28th April, 1853, to be burned off Kingston, with many passengers early on the follow- Ing day.
How it saw the “Citizen,” a ferry steamer, sail on 6th May, 1853, through the Eastern Gap, the first steamer to go through, and then jour- ney to the Humber and back to Toronto.
How it saw the “Peerless” make her Arst trip on 5th June, 1853, to Niagara and leave Toronto harbor on 10th May, 1861, on her last trip en route for service fn southern waters, which
she never reached, for she was lost off Cape Hatteras.
How it saw the steamer “Queen City,” formerly “Lady of the Lake,” in flames at the Queen’s Wharf about 10 o’clock p.m. on January 25th. 1855.
How it saw the great south-west gale of 18th April, 1855, which wreck- ed the schooner “Defiance” and many others of lake craft.
How it saw on July 16th, 1855, the “Canada,” the sister
sister ship of the “America,” the two magnificent steam- ships of the Great Western Railway, both built at Niagara, enter Toronto harbor on its first journey between Hamilton, Toronto and Oswego. A TORONTO SHIP FOR ENGLAND.
How it saw the three-masted sail- ing vessel, “City of Toronto.” built at what is now the foot of Lorne street, opposite Knox College, 110W the Queen’s Hotel, and sail around the Point for England in 1855.
How it saw the “Chief Justice.” held by a foot of ice. cut out of Toronto Ray with saws, and plough its way through the ice in the winter of 1855, as tng writer stood by.
How it saw the boiler of the pro- pellor “Inkerman” blow up as the ves- Brown’s wharf on the afternoon of sel was backing out from Upton & 29th May, 1857.
How it saw the “Peerless” on 13th Oct., 1859, take the veterans of the War of 1812 to Queenston Heights to the inauguration of the Brock’s Monument.
present
How it saw the steamer “Kingston” of the Royal Mail Line, on 7th Sept.. 1860, with the Royal Standard at its masthead, round the point with H. R. 11, the Prince of Wales on board, and land him at the foot of John street.
How it saw in July, 1861, the pre- sent lighthouse on the Queen’s wharf built and installed.
How it saw the terrific storm of 2nd Nov., 1861, when many schooners were lost, and the propellor “Bay State” went down with all on board.
How it saw just before daybreak on 21st Aug., 1863, the sky blackened over on the Niagara side of the lake as the steamer “Zimmerman” was de- stroyed by fire.
How it saw the “Chicora” come up the lake in 1866 after its service as the “Letter B,’ a Confederate block-
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
ade runner in the United States Civil War, and how it heard “eight bells” struck, for it was high noon just when the steamer was due west of the
Point.
367
of the Richelieu line, make her first trip for Prescott, 5th July, 1901.
How it saw the tug “Mary” towing the dredge Sir Wilfrid round the Point on the morning of the 9th Oct., 1902, on its way to Kingston, and heard of
Civil War, round the Point
Hope at ning
opposite
Port
How it saw the “Rothesay Castle,” built in 1864 for a blockade runner in the U. S. Civil on the evening in the summer of 1866, and enter the harbor, and take the Niagara route as the “Southern Belle.”

How saw on the evening of 1st June, 1866, the steamer “City of To ronto” take the Queen’s Own Rifles, 350 strong, under Lt. Col. Gilmour, for active service during the Fenian In- vasion.
How it saw the “Monarch” steamer wrecked on the 17th August, 1875, just a mile east of the lighthouse, and the shore strewn with wreckage.
How it saw all steamers on 2nd Aug., 1870, enter the harbor with flags at half-mast in token of respect for Capt. Hugh Richardson, Harbour- master, who died that day in Toronto, in his 87th year.
How it saw the lightning in 1879 strike the weather vane on the lantern cage, travel down the stairway, clean all the whitewash off the inner walls, knock the steps so that the keeper couldn’t get up to the lantern, and then disappear through the transom over the entrance door.

How it saw the reflection of the fames of the fire that consumed the second steamer, “City of Toronto,” on a summer night in 1882 at Port Dal- housie.
How it saw the steamer”
Luella,”
on 5th July, 1883, land at the Point, 56 sick children, the first that ever occu- pied The Lakeside Home for Little Children, the convalescent home of the Hospital for Sick Children.
How it saw the Cibola make her first trip to Niagara in 1888.
How on 13th Nov., 1866, it saw the waters of the lake at boiling point as the huge rollers came ashore and cut away yards of the south front of the Island, when the “Caspian” schooner was wrecked, and also vessels of Ham- ilton, Toronto, Port Hope and King.
ston.
How it saw the “Toronto” of the Richelieu line make her first. trip to Prescott in the season of 1899.
How it saw the steamer “Kingston.”
!
of the same day.
How it saw the steam barge Re- solute go down in a south-west gale west of and near the harbor during the night of 22nd Nov., 1906.
How it saw the “Cayuga” of the .agara line, make her first trip on 8th June, 1907.
And many other events that would fill volumes.
DAYS OF GOVERNOR SIMCOE.
When John Graves Simcoe, the first Governor of Upper Canada, “set out” with his suite on the 3rd of May. 1793. “in boats from Niagara to Toronto round the head of the Lake Ontario by Burlington Bay.” as stated in the Upper Canada Gazette of 9th May, 1793, he declared on arrival at Toronto that in the near future a lighthouse to guide mariners, would have to be es- tablished on the western end of the peninsula opposite York. In 179% the present Toronto Island was a penin sula on which one could walk from
west and south shores to the point Gibraltar or Hanlan’s Point along the where the peninsula joined the main- land, just east of the Woodbine race track.
The suggestion of the Governor istration. Indeed eight years elapsed never materialized during his admin-
before the shaft from the Queenston quarries reared its head on the barren. sands and carried the beacon that has welcomed and warned the thousands of sailormen who, in calm and storm. have watched the flashing of its rays as they darted from the lantern to the blue waters of the great lake. LOCATION OF GIBRALTAR POINT.
And here let it be noted in the lit erary log book, that the name “Gib- raltar Point.” as applied to the pre- sent location of the lighthouse. is mis- applied. It was never so named. deed, some of the old inhabitants 1818-20, one, the late William Helli-
In-
of
368
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
The lettering on this official plan has the words “Gibraltar Point” at the site of Hanlan’s, and also that on the east and west shores at this point, the depth of water averaged three feet, and that in Blockhouse Bay here was only one spot, about 300 feet south of Durnan’s boathouse and east a couple. of hundred feet, where the greatest depth of water was six feet.
well of Highland Creek, says it was and extended for the Toronto Ferry known as “Grindstone Point,” but for Company. what reason no one knows. That name was certainly inappropriate, for of stone there are no examples on that vast acreage of sand. The truth is, and this is the story at Wolford, the family home of Simcoe in Devon, that the Governor when he named the north spit of the west sand bank, Gibraltar Point, had in his mind the relative positions
of Gibraltar, the fortress on the Mediter- ranean, and Cape Spartel and Ceuta, on the shores of Africa on the south shore of the straits that lead to that great inland sea.
WHY “BLOCKHOUSE” BAY. The term “Blockhouse Bay” origin. ated from the fact that Governor Sim- coe erected in 1794 at Gibraltar Point, a small blockhouse with two guns. This
The original home of the The present keeper’s house,
lightkeeper, 1808.
The Lighthouse.
“battery” as it was called, occupied the site of the waterworks crib. which stands about a hundred feet from the Toronto Ferry Island docks. In 1793 the spit of sand ran out in this direction, but this part of the shore has all been dredged away to make the ground and cribwork of the Ferry Company. Fifteen years ago. when the water near to the crib was being dredged, the remains of the wooden foundation of the blockhouse found, and also some small cannon balls that were for the supply of the two guns that were mounted at this
For many years this error in nam-1 ing lighthouse point prevailed, and even in a Landmark, Vol. II., p. 680, published in 1896, the term “Gibral tar” for the lighthouse point is used.
WHERE GIBRALTAR POINT IS.
But the discovery by the writer in 1905, in the Record Office in Chancery Lane, London, England, of the or- ginal and official plan of the town and harbor made by “A. Aitken,” a deputy- surveyor, “by order of Lieut.-Gov. Sim- coe,” shows that “Gibraltar Point” was the point that existed before the present Hanlan’s Point was filled in blockhouse.
were
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
369
THE LIGHTHOUSE DECIDED ON.
But to return to the lighthouse and its history. It is said that prior to the end of the eighteenth century, be. tween 1796-1800, steps were taken to erect a lighthouse at the southwest angle of the peninsula, but there is no record nor is there any mention of such proposal in the Simcoe papers or in the Upper Canada Gazette, the official organ of the Provincial Govern ment.
The debates of the Legislature of 1803 were never published, for Han sard was not one of the novelties in connection with early Legislatures, ut the Acts passed by our pioneer law makers have been published, and as a matter of record the one that authoriz ed the building of this lighthouse is made a part of this Landmark.
WHAT THE LEGISLATURE DID.
The Act was for Customs purposes and also for the purpose of establish ing “a fund for the erection and re- pairing of lighthouses.”
It reads:-
In the forty-third year of George the Third, A.D., 1803, Third Section, Chap. II.
“An Act to Explain and Amend an Act passed in the Forty-fifth Year of His Majesty’s Reign intituled ‘An Act for Granting to His Majesty, his heirs and successors, to and for the Uses of this Province, the like Duties on Goods and Merchandise brought into this Province from the United States of America, s are now paid on Goods and Merchandise imported from Great Bri- tain and other places, and to Provide more effectually for the Collection and Payment of Duties on Goods and Mer-
chandise coming from the United
States of America into this Province.” and also to establish a Fund, for the erection and repairing of Light Houses. (Passed March 5, 1803.)
“VII. And whereas it will be neces- sary and essential to the safety of ves- sels, boats, rafts and other craft pass- ing from Lake Ontario Into the River. Niagara, and passing by the Island called Tale Forest, and likewise into the Port of York, that there should be n Light House erected near to each
of the sold last mentioned places. Be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid. That In order to provide for the expense of erecting and repairing such Light Houses, it shall and may be lawful to and for the collector or his deputy at the port to which any vessel, boat, raft or other craft shall arrive next after having passed the anld Lake Into the sald River or the anid Island, or which shall come into the Port of York, and such collector or his deputy is hereby authorized and required to
demand and receive of and from the master, commander or owner of each and every such vessel, boat. raft or other craft the following rate, that is to say, for every vessel, bont, raft or other craft of the burthen of ten tons and upwards, the sum of three pence for every ton of which vessel. boat. raft or other craft is of burthen, and which burthen is ereby required to be computed by such collector or his deputy, and the monies by such ton- nage rate accruing, when collectol, the said collector is hereby rotired to pay into the hands of his Majesty’s Tie- ceiver General of this province, at the same time he pays the other duties by him collected, and all which said. sums of money so to be collected upon the said tonnage. the Governor. Lieut- enant-Governor, or person administer- ing the Government of the Province. is hereby authorized and impowered by and with the advice and consent of the Executive Council of the Prov- ince, to lay out and expend or cause to be laid out and expended, in the erection and keeping in repair, and other incidental charges attending three Light Houses, one to be erected and built upon the south westernmost point of a certain island called Isle Forest, situate about three lenguta from the town of Kingston, in the Midland District; another upon Miss- issauga Point, at the entrance of the Niagara River, near to the town of Niagara, and the other upon Gibraltar Point.”
THE TORONTO LIGHTHOUSE. Material: Queenston and Kingston
stone.
Building authorized
Legislature..
Work commenced…
Structure
completed
Queenston stone
Lantern first lighted 30th
September
by
1803
1806
1808
1808
52 feet
22 feet
68 feet
6 feet
46 feet
46 feet 8×8 feet
Height original structure,
including lantern Diameter at base.. Circumference at base Thickness of walls at base Thickness of wall at top
in 1808..
Circumference stone ridge
under lantern (1808) Floor area under lantern Ground floor area, inter-
terior..
Heightened in 1832, King-
stone stone
Total height of stone
work.. Height Height from stone work
to vane..
12×12 feet
12 feet
64 feet
+
18 feet
$2 fort
Height from ground to
vane on lantern..
370
Oll used each year .. Light on clear night
*be soon.
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
enn
Light on might
avorago
can be soon
Revolving light runs with
out re-winding cable
Muller or Millar.
Holloway
200 gals.
30 miles
14 to 20 miles
14 hours
TERMS OF LIGHTKEEPERS.
8 years ..16 years James Durnan.. 22 years George Durnan …52 years Patrick McSherry. 2 years
J
plcture was copied in oil, and prosent ed to the corporation of Toronto by Mr. Robertson In 1907.
+
Certain It is that the lighthouso at Toronto was oructed within five years of the passage of the net of the Legis- laturo, for the lato Mr. William Holll- well, of 111ghland Crook, who was present in 1818 at the dismantling of 1808-1815 the blockhouso at what is now Ilun- 1816-1831 lan’s Point, had a conversation with 1832-1853 a Mr. Thompson,
who about 1806 1853-1905 1853-1905 brought over Niagara stone, of which 1905-1907 1905-1907 the present lighthouse is in great part
built.
In all..
..100 years 100 years THREE ONTARIO LIGHTHOUSES.
There is no official data by which the exact time of the installation of the lighthouse at or near Kingston can be determined. It seems reasonable to suppose that when in 1803 an act of the Legislature was passed for the erection of three lighthouses, one at Kingston, a second at Niagara, and the third at “Gibraltar Point,” oppo- site York, now Toronto, that these lighthouses were erected in due
course.
on
In Appendix No. 19, Report on Light- houses, Public Works of Canada, there is this extract: “The lighthouse Gibraltar Point is on the S. W. side of the point, 1% miles S. of Toronto. Erected in 1820. In 1868 $55 was spent in repairs.”
The Public Works report of 1807 states, concerning the light at Gib- raltar Point, formerly Lighthouse Point, Toronto Island, that the light is on the south-west side of the Point, three miles south of Toronto, latitude north 43.37.0, longitude west 79.23.30. It had then twelve lamps, so this re- port states, and was established and first light lit in 1820.
There is a record also in this report of the light at Queen’s Wharf, on the western pier, first lighted in 1838.
Notwithstanding this statement in the Government report, every plan of York and Toronto Harbor from 1813 till 1907 shows the site of the light house, and in reference to each its location is so marked. In Robertson’s collection is a copy of a picture of York, now Toronto, made in 1818 by Mr. Irving. The artist stood within 200 feet of the lighthouse, and the building is shown in this picture. This
A second proof is that in a military plan of 1813, in the Robertson collec- tion of early inaps and plans of the city, is shown the site of the light- house plainly marked, and if any other plan between 1808-12 is ever discov cred, it will surely contain the same marking.
Regarding the lighthouse at Kings- tion,, there is no official data prior to 1833 of the installation of a light on any point at or near Kingston.
It is known that there was a block house and a signal station on Snake Island, erected about the time of the war of 1812, and Is station was used to signal the fort at Kingston.
The channels used in the approach to Kingston harbor were three, namely the Batteaux Channel, between Simcoe and Wolfe Island; the North Channel, and occasionally, what is called the South Channel.
Bouchette in 1832 channels as follows:-
describes the
“The approach to Kingston Harbor is made by three different channels; the first’ called Batteaux Channel, is between Wolfe Island and Forest Is- land, and is generally used by small craft only, there being in several places hardly two fathoms and a half, water; the next is the South Channel, formed by Forest Island and Snake Island; a small spot with extensive bank spreading from it; here also is the fair way the water shoals from three to two fathoms and a half. The third and best is the North Channel, between Snake Island and the main- land which, although it increases the distance a little, is by far the safest, having from five to ten fathoms in it.”
The charts of old days always point out the North Channel as the Import- ant one, and even now vessels com-
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
ing for the first time to the harbor of Kingston nourly always take the North Channol.
The only valuablo Ighthouse sito for any of these channels is that at Nino Mile Point, and as there is no evidence of an earlier light It would seom that tho first lighthouse is the one existing there, on Simcoe, or For- ost, Island. Simcoo Island seems
Simcoo Island seems to have gone under several names. First, Dolle Islo, then Islo Au Foret, or La Forest. Varlous stories are told to account for the origin of the name Foret. One is that it was so called on account of the many trees which grew on it. Another that it was call ed La Forest after one of La Salle’s lleutenants, a quite possible expla- nation, as Amherst Island was also called after another lieutenant, named Tantl, and Parkman (page 189), when writing in regard to La Salle’s expe- dition to rescue Tanti, says: “On the tenth of August he embarked on the Illinois. With him went a lieutenant, La Forest, who held from him in fief an Island, then called Belle Isle, oppo- sito Fort Frontenac.”
T
La Salle acquired this island in 1665, when Fort Frontenac and four square leagues of land were granted to him.. This grant included all tho islands opposite Kingston.
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They report on the 22nd November, 1833, to his Excellency Sir John Col- borno. They say, among other things, in this report: “The site of the light houso having been fixed by the Legin lature, It was found that it Velonged to the Hon. Charles W. Grant and others, who were about disposing of the whole of Cage or 1ste Foret, to an individual resident of Kingston, naine ly, Mr. William Garratt. When the commissioners made known to him the nature of their duties, and their desiro to obtain a grant for the orec ton of the lighthouse at the place de- signated by the Legislature, Mr. Gar- ratt immediately and without any hesitation offered the commissioners five acres on the point, so laid off as to be made convenient for their pur- pose, and declined all compensation. for it, an instance of liberality which the commissioners feel themselves bound particularly to notice.”
The succeeding part of the report brings out something of the history of other lighthouses on Lake Ontario.
Speaking of the form of the light-
Mile Point is similar in respect houses: “The lighthouse on Nine to form and construction to the build- ing at False Ducks and Point Peters, 11 lamps like the latter, but about 20 feet lower. Being not more than 20 miles from False Duck, its light will be distinctly visible even from that island, which is more than the accom- con-modation and safety of the vessels re-
There is a good deal of confusion in regard to what is called Gage Island, but this was merely another name for Sincoo Island. Simcoe Island talus 2,164 acres of rich land.
Dr. Charles K. Clarke, now the su- perintendent of Toronto Asylum, and formerly of Kingston, a gentleman well up in pioneer history of that dis- trict, says that “the first trace I can find of any lighthouse at Kingston is to be found in the report of the Com- missioner of Lighthouses, and in the acts of 1833.”
An act passed on the 13th February, 1833, authorizes the building of a lighthouse at Nine Mile Point, and three commissioners, namely, J. Mc- Cauley, J. Marks and H. C. Thomp- son, were appointed to
to have this erected. An amount of £750 was ap propriated by the House of Assembly, Upper Canada. They carried out their instructions, and much interesting in- formation is to be found about light- houses.
quire. A less elevation than 40 feet was not thought advisable, Indeed the commissioners would have felt inclin- ed to have raised the tower 50 feet above the surface of the lake had the amount of the appropriation justified them in doing so. Many persons are of the opinion that if the tower at Nine Mile Point had been raised 60 feet, the light at False Ducks might have been dispensed with.”
Nine Mile lighthouse is six and three- quarter miles above Kingston.
All comparisons made by the com- missioners Indicate that there was no other lighthouse at Kingston, and an act passed on February 13th, 1833, – clincs one to believe that the only other lighthouses of importance exist ing in Upper Canada were Gibraltar Polat, False Ducks, Point Peters and Ling Point in Lake Erie.
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LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
An act was passed then to raise £600 for the support of the same and subsequently, in the same year, an act was passed to provide a light at Burlington Bay.
A lighthouse was established on Snake Island, near Kingston, in 1858. It was for many years on a bar 550 yards south-east of Snake Island. With- in the last ten years a new lighthouse was erected still further south, and this light was merely an aid to the important lighthouse on Simcoe Is- land at Nine Mile Point, which as before stated was established in 1833.
In the Government Public Works general report for 1867, p. 82, appendix No. 10, Kingston light is described as at the south-east part of the town-a fixed light, which was first lighted in 1844.
in the city of Kingston, but have paid. the corporation since 1844 for main- taining a light in the City Hall clock.” With regard to the light at Niagara. D. W. Smyth in his Provincial Gazet- teer in 1813. says Mississauga Point, in the township of Ni- agara, lying on the west side of the entrance to the River Niagara, and op- posite the American fort of Niagara, N.Y.,” and further, “Gibraltar Point is the western extremity of a sandbank, which forms the harbor of York, and upon which blockhouses are erected for its defence.”
There have been some doubts ex- pressed as to the date of erection of the lighthouse at Niagara. The Public Works Department at Ottawa do not show any record of any light at that port prior to 1889. It is the tradition
VIEW OF NIAGARA, 1807.
The light at Snake Island pier or bar, on the north side of the channel, 5 miles west of Kingston, is shown as being installed with three lamps and two reflectors. The first light installed in 1858.
that this light was the first installed by the Legislature of Upper Canada, and if the public accounts of, the early days could be found, entries would show the expenditure of the province.
In Robertson’s History of Free- masonry, Vol I., page 495, there is a drawing which is believed to have been made in 1805, and at page 508 of the same volume there is another drawing that was made some time be- tween 1810-13. Lossing, in his Pic- torial Field Book of the War of 1812, has the latter picture, showing the lighthouse. Point Travers. lighthouse. In a footnote he writes:
The third light, at Gage or Simcoe Island, was at Point Yeo, formerly Nine Mile Point, on the north-west point of Simcoe Island, nine miles west of Kingston. First light in 1833. The Outer Ducks, or False Ducks, installed at the east end of the island, one mile south of Timber Island, and three miles south of Point Travers. First fixed light, established in 1828
Col. Wm. P. Anderson, chief en gineer of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, writes in 1907, however, regarding the lighthouse at
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“This view is from a drawing made in 1813, previous to the attack on Fort George, and published in the Port Folio in July, 1817.” Lossing goes on to add: “On the extreme left is seen
Kingston: We have no old lighthouse | Fort Niagara and the village of New-
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
ark. To the right of the lighthouse, over which is a flag, is seen the bat tery which the Julia and Growler con- trolled.” These two ships were Am- erican vessels of war. It is claimed that the picture which Lossing claims to have been made in 1813 was made somewhere between 1807 and 1810. The original cannot be found, but there seems to be no doubt that the lighthouse at Mississauga Point was there some years before the war.
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obtained his discharge and kept the lighthouse where he remained cleven years, from 1803 to 1814, the light- house being then taken down and the tower which now stands built on the same spot in Fort Mississauga en- closure.
In an article in the Star newspaper. published in Wilson, N. Y., 1888, a re- porter interviewed Mrs. Quade, who was then 84, and learned some very interesting particulars. Those about the lighthouse are extract.
The lighthouse must have been built about 1803. In the records of Mrs. Quade said there were many Mrs. Elizabeth Quade, nee Henry, pub exciting times during the war and that lished in the Niagara Historical Pam-“the Americans iad one day hem hr.
THE LIGHTHOUSE AT NIAGARA, 1805-14.
phlet, No. 11, page 10, Miss Quade, of ing and she was playing house with Ransomville, gives many interesting particulars of her grandfather and grandmother. The first given was written by her mother in August, 1889.
She relates that her father, Dominic Henry, came to this country at the time of the Revolutionary war. He was with Cornwallis at the time of his surrender in 1781. He married in 1790 and returned to his regiment, the 4th battalion of Royal Artillery, and they were moved to several parts of Can- ada, and at last came to Fort George, where he ended his military services,
several children near the lighthouse. when a man came along and picked up a cannon ball which had just been fired; he was passing along with it in his arms when another ball which had just been fired struck the one he had in his arms and he was instantly kill- ed.”
“At another time. she and several other children were playing in a wheel- barrow near the lighthouse when a cannon ball struck about two feet from them. They then ran behind the lighthouse and in another moment an
371
other ball struck the they had atoms.”
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wheelbarrow rails of several battles favorable to just left, smashing it to the British. Being in civillan’s clothes. Henry did not know for some time that he was talking to General Har- rison, and begged him not to consider
Aud further: “When the town was burned the lighthouse was left, as it

GEORGE DURNAN.
be
benefited the Americans as well as his conversation very seriously, the British.
General
Harrison, when having spoken very freely. but was stopping a short time at Fort George, told that he could not be blamed for in 1813, called at the lighthouse, and standing up for his country.” engaged in conversation with her father, the keeper, who gave the de-
And still further: “I saw the first sods dug that were used in the build-
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
ing of that fort. The lighthouse stood on the ground where the old tower now stands. Our dwelling house also stood near the lighthouse, and there is the place where I was born and my childhood days were passed there, and after the war the lighthouse was torn down, and the tower built from the stone and brick from the ruins of the town and lighthouse.”
The Niagara Historical Society have a sketch drawn on common writ- ing paper, which is now framed, and shows the river, Youngstown, fort, lighthouse, batteries and town.
In a very rare book, the report of the Loyal and Patriotic Society, form- ed during the war of 1812-14, there is a very interesting mention of Mrs. Henry. It appears that on the day of the taking of Fort Georgs, Mrs. Henry, living near the lighthouse, served out refreshments to our sol- diers, who were crossing, the enemy landing on the lake shore. For this noble deed the Loyal and Patriotic/
Society afterwards gave her the sum of £25, calling her “a brave woman and one not to be frightened.” Mrs. Quade was born in 1804 in the house adjoining the lighthouse.
PRESENT POINT NOT GIBRALTAP The last part of this extract from Smyth shows that the term Gib. raltar Point” was applied to the en- tire western sandbank, from where it turned north at the present Lakeside Home, to its north end. now Hanlan’s Point, but that the term applled par ticularly to that part of the “sandbank :n which blockhouses are erected.”
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375.
boat, raft, or other craft has passed the said Island or the waid Mississauga Point, or Gibraltar Point, ench цай every owner, commander or minster of each and every vessel, boat, raft, or other craft, who shall pass such Island or Points, or either of them, and arrive at the ports of Kingston, Niagara, or York, is hereby required to insert it in, or add it to the declaration by the said recited Aer of this Province, and the Act required to be made. that he has No passed the said Island, or Missiș- sauga Point, or Gibraltar Point, and in case such owner, commander or mas- ter shall refuse to pay the tonnage hereby intended to be imposed, the col- lector pt the said district, or his de- puty, as hereby empowered and re- quired to sunimon such owner. com- Majesty’s justices of the pence for marder or master before any one of the district, where the same shall hap- pen, and such magistrate is hereby em- powered and authorized, in a summary way, to hear and determine the com- plaint to be thereof made by the said collector or his deputy, and if the sabl justice shall order payment to be made of the said tonnage, according to the rates by this Act imposed, and the said owner, commander or master shall not. collector or his deputy, together, with forthwith pay the same to the said the costs and expenses of the said pro- ceeding, before the said justice, such justice is hereby empowered and auth- orized to issue his warrant to lovy such tonnage and costs. by sale of any part of the cargo contained in any such last mentioned vessel, boat raft. or other craft, or any of the tackle or apparel thereof, or of any other of the goods and chattels of the party or parties the surplus of such moneys arising complained against, restoring
from such sale if any such shall be, to the said tonnage and the said costs. such party or parties, after deducting and the charges and expenses of sale. Provided, nevertheless. That no such sel, boat, raft, or other craft which hy tonnage shall be payable for any ves- stress or severity of weather, or other disastrous event, shall be compelled to return into the same harbour whence the last departed, without having per- fected her intended voyage. And the charge, demand, and take the follow- said justice is hereby authorized to ing fees for hearing and determining the said complaint, and no more-For ment. two shillings and sixpence: war- his summons, two shillings for judg- rant to distrain, five shillings: for the person serving the summons, two shii- lings mileage for every mile. four- pence executing warrant of distress
It was certainly never intended to use the term specifically to indicate the exact spot where the lighthouse was O be built. At the same time, there is no doubt that whoever drew the Act Joubtedly thought that the site of the present lighthouse was “Gibraltar Point.” But whatever the Act states as regards the name does not alter and return thereof, five shillings. the fact that the term as applied to the lighthouse Point is absolutely in-
The official who drafted the Act correct, and that it was never the ‘n. evidently thought that the south east tention of Governor Simcoe, who se point was named “Gibraltar Point.” lected the name, to indicate more than for the Act calls upon every comman the point or sp of sand now known der or master of vessels “who shaft as Hanlan’s Point.
pass such Island or Point” to report that “he has so passed the said island (Forest) or Mississauga Point or Gib.
VIII. And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That in order to ascertain whether any such vessel,
raltar Point.”
+
. 376
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Lord the King, his heirs or successors; anything herein contained to the con- trary notwithstanding.
WHEN LIGHTHOUSE WAS BUILT,
Although the Act providing for the erection of a lighthouse was passed in 1503, it was some years later before the building was actually commenced.
Fle
IX. And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That in case any proceedings shall, after the passing of this Act, be had for the condemnation of any goods, wares or merchandise, or for, or in respect of anything done or neglected to be done, contrary to the provisions of the wald recited Act of this Province, or this Act, or of any Act or Acts of this Province now passed. or hereafter to be passed, re- Mr. John Thomson, who was a rest specting any duties imposed or to be im deut of Toronto, and living in 1873, posed upon goods, wares and merchan- dise coming into this Province from the stated that he worked on the building. sald United States, that as well in cases and that it was erected in 1808, where the goods seized shall be ad-
td the late William Helliwell that judged to be restored, or if condemned, shall be insufficlent to pay the costs
some years before 1808 The Mohawk.” and expenses of the proceedings had a Government schooner, had brought respecting the same, as in all other over a load of stone from a parry cases where the proceedings by or
at Queenston for the ngalret the collectors or deputies shall
purpose f be for or on account of anything done, the erection of
the Toronto light- or omitted to be done, by such collec- house, so that the building must have tor or deputy, it shall and may be been commenced about 1806. for the lawful to and tor the Governor. Lieut-Gazette of 16th March, 1898, states:- enant-Governor, or person administer- Ing the Government of this Province”It is with pleasure we inform the for the time being, and he is hereby public that the dangers to vessels empowered and authorized (if he shall navigating Lake Outario will in a see fit so to do), to discharge. satisfy and pay all such costs and expenses great measure be avoided by the erec out of the monies which shall be then tion of a lighthouse on Gibraltar in the hands of his Majesty’s Receiver Point, which is to be immediately com- General of this Province, and which
pleted in compliance with an address of the House of Assembly to the Lieutenant-Governor.”
shall have arisen out of any duties Imposed, or to be imposed, on any goods, wares and merchandise coming from the said United States, and the said Receiver General is hereby re- quired to pay and discharge all such warrant and warrants as shall for such purposes be issued by the said Gov- ernor. Lleuenant-Governor, or person administering the Government of this Province for the time being.
It will be noted that the lighthouse is to be “immediately completed.” in- dicating that it had been commenced. at sonie earlier period, earlier certain- ly than the winter of 1807-08.
There is no record in either the U. C. Gazette, or in any official document, manuscript or printed paper, as to the exact date of the first night on w…ch the lamp was lit. but it is said to have been first lighted on the last day of September, 1808.
X. And be it Further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Gover- nor. Lieutenant-Governor, 07 person administering the Government of this Province for the time being, h, and he is hereby authorized to establish the office of the collector of the Dis- trict of Newcastle in any place within the harbor of Newcastle, which he may judge more convenient than the Town of Newcastle, until a gnol and
John Thomson, who worked as a courthouse be erected in the said town and no longer, Provided always. That stonemason, was a relative of the late nothing herein contained shall ex- Col, E. W. Thomson, of Toronto town- tend or be construed to extend, to re-ship, and was the man who, when the peal or vary all or any of the provi- sions contained in the said recited Acti United States declared war, carried of this Province, or any other Art the news to Mackinaw.
of this Province, unless insofar as such provisions are and will be neces- sarily varied by the provisions in this Art contained, in order to give due force and effect to this Act, and no further, Provided nevertheless, that nothing in any part of this Act con- tained shall extend or he construed to extend. to any ship or
any ship or vessel. boat. vesel, boat. raft, canoe or other craft or carriage, now belonging, or which may at any time hereafter belong to our Sovereign
AN INCIDENT OF THE WAR OF 1812.
General Brock, who was the admin. istrator of the Government in the absence of Governor Gore. was at the town of York and wanted someone to
to undertake this mission for him, but none of his men or officers would volunteer to do it, for they regarded it as “civil” duty, and preferred to be on the fighting line.”
FO
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377
INTERIOR OF THE LANTERN CAGE, 1907.
This engraving shows the revolving lantern installed in 1878. The lamps used from 1808-1877 were stationary. The open door shows the cable drum, and over it to the left the handle for winding up the wire cable.
378
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
1
Thomson hau been at York doing distant ten feet from the structure, some mason work for the Government, an surround it.
and surround it. The building itself is and had just taken some orders from said to stand on a heavy
a heavy crib of General Brock, when the courier timber filled with large and small arrived bringing the announcement stones, the foundation being probably that war was declared. A half-dozens feet deep. The outer frame of timber officers were instantly summoned, and is also filled with stone, closely packed, as they respectfully raised objections so as to kec: the base in its place. to the mission, Thomson who was The building is hexagon in form, con standing by, said, “Well, General, I’ll structed on the plan of six squares, Brock turned to him, and said, and the bed or base is, of course, of go.” “Thanks, Thomson,” and then said to the same shape. The diameter of the Col. John McDonell, his aide. “See that building at the base is twenty-two a guide is provided for Thomson, and feet, and the circumferance at the two of the best horses in the stable base is sixty-eight feet. saddled.” In an hour Thomson and his guide were on their way west.
THE LIGHTHOUSE SITE. The ground occupied by the light house, and reserved by the Govern- ment for the use of the lightkeeper. was originally about ten acres of pure sand, and from 508 until 1834. the only marks to define the property, were large stakes driven in the sand at the east and west boundaries. for on the north side of the lighthouse pro- perty was the water at the south end of Blockhouse Bay, and on the south side of the property was the large lagoon that in 1905-6 was filled up by the Corporation of Toronto for The Lakeside Home for Little Children.
BOUNDARIES OF THE SITE. The lighthouse stands 1.188 feet from the west shore of the Island. 756 feet from the south, and 1.572 from the south-west corner or angle of the island.
The east boundary of the property was about a hundred feet east of the lighthouse, and the western boundary ran to the line of the present cement sidewalk that has been laid between Han
Point and the Lakeside Home. But in 1905 an arrangement was made between the corporation of the city and the Dominion Governinent by which three-fourths of the stretch of sand, west of the lighthouse, and reserveu for lighthouse use, was given over to the city for park purposes, the Government retaining about a couple of acres immediately west of the lighthouse.
THE LIGHTHOUSE ITSELF.
feet in
in height.
The walls at the base are of blocks. of stone put together with mortar. Tuese walls, which are six feet thick, gradually decrease in size. till at the top they are reduced to four feet. feet is At the height of fifty-two
This was the top a ridge of stone. stone work of the original lighthouse, 1808-32, and above it stood the lantern and gallery. The circumference of the ridge is forty-six feet. The stone used The height is Queenston limestone.. from the stone work to the vane is eighteen feet, c total height eighty- two feet.
.D 1832, as afterwards described, the Government added twelve feet, hex agonal in form, of Kingston stone, built in cement.
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On the outer wall of the building near the door or entrance. is a bronze plate with the inscription.
B. M.
No. 200 ELE 7,34
It was placed there by the Depart- Ottawa. “B.M.” ment of Marine at stands for bench mark, and 200 stands for the number of the particular bench mark, so as to distinguish it or locate “Ele. it as from other bench marks. 7.34” means the height of bench mark above low water. The figures corre- spond with the records of the light-
The lighthouse when first built was house in the Marine Department. fifty-two feet
Its base stands within a frame of six timbers. hexagon in form, each of which are
MULLER THE FIRST KEEPER. The first keeper of the lighthouse was a man named Muller or Miller, a
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
379
3
THE LIGHTHOUSE, 1907.
No. 1 is the Lighthouse as it stands to-day.
2
No. 2 is the present keeper’s dwelling. It was built as a one-storey cottage in 1838, and made a two-storey house in 1875. It was first occupied by James and then by George Durnan, his son. No. 3 is the one-storey house of plank, as a dwelling for the keeper, built 1808, occupied by Muller, Holloway, James Durnan, 1808-38.
No. 4 is a work-shop built by George Durnan many years ago. These buildings all face south. The door to the Lighthouse is on its east side.
380
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Cerman by birth, a quiet, inoffensiv man, who attended to his duties faith fully.
OLDEST HOUSE IN TORONTO.
He occupied the house erected in 1808, which stands directly west of the present keeper’s dwelling. It is a frame house of uncommon construc- tion, for it is built of three-inch planks with a frame of plank timbers. and the outside is clapboarded. It is 18 x 20 in size, and had two rooms, 9 x 15 and 11 x 15, used as a kitchen and
The windows have solid shutters of wood, and were fastened on the in- side by a wooden bolt, which worked in a slot between two wooden pins into the keeper, and which moved back when the window shutter was to be opened and forward when it was to be closed.
The framework is all fastened to- gether by wooden trenails or pins.
The boards of the floor are of two- inch plank, sixteen inches wide. If put down to-day they would be of inch plank and three or four inches wide
0
I II
AN OLD SHUTTER.
living room, and an attic, 16 x 24. It is the oldest house in Toronto.
The nails used in the construction and the loor latches were hand-made by the military blacksmith at the Old Fort.
UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. This engraving is given to show the style of shutter with wooden bolt. which protected the window at night. The bolt worked between two wooden pins into the keeper, moved forward when shut and backward when open.
In the south-west corner of the west room, and to the left of the fireplace. is a staircase of wood leading to the loft or attic. The bolt of the door was of wood.
INTERESTING KITCHEN.
The kitchen has an old-time fire- place made of hand-made bricks, and what is rather peculiar, instead of the arch being made self-supporting with a keystone in the centre. it has a beam of 4 x 4 oak to carry the bricks in the upper part of the face.
w the mantel is
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an opening covered with a board which works on hinges and lifts. Behind this board there is a receptacle where the meat
381
This space is also protected by a door. To the left of the large fire-place is a smaller one, and above it a space for smoking meat.
A PRIMITIVE STAIRWAY.
was smoked, and at the left side of the mantel there is also space for hanging meat after being smoked.
This fireplace is in the house which was erected in 1808. place. was a space
Above the re- behind a board
382
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
which is shown with two hinges. The space was used for smoking meat. The cupboard to the left side of the fire- place looking at the picture, was where meat was hung after being smoked. The cupboard to the right was also used for smoking meat, as the small fireplace is directly under it.
Over the fireplace are brackets which supported the shelf on which Muller, the first light keeper, a Ger- man, stood his “steins,” so says a well founded tradition.
yards west of the lighthouse. The signal was blown down in 1885. Sperm oil was also used in this lantern. This lantern is 18 inches in height, and had eight guards and four cross-bars on the guards. The glass was 12 x 6 inches. Its circumference was two and a half feet.
The second lamp is a ship’s anchor light. It was made about fifty years. ago. It is strong and heavy. It was used in 1878 during the time that the stationary light was being taken down
A PIONEER FIREPLACE.
The fireplace in the old house next to the lightkeeper’s dwelling, built in 1808 and occupied by the lightkeepers from 1803-75.
In the south-west corner of the bed- room and to the left of the fireplace is a staircase of wood leading to the loft or attic.
The other day Mrs. McSherry, the wife of the lightkeeper, found in the attic a couple of old lanterns. One of them is square and heavy in make, with its sides protected by heavy wire. It was used from 1808-75. It is known as a ship’s anchor light, and was used by the late Mr. Durnan on the storm signal that was erected two hundred
It
and the revolving light installed. did service as a beacon for about a week. This lantern was 14 inches high, circumference of rim two feet, and of globe 18 inches, and depth of globe 5 inches.
This house has been for forty years used for the storage of the oil used for the lamps. Muller, true to the customs of his Fatherland, always liked a glass of beer, and by way of improving his ipend as lighthouse keeper, he always kept a spare keg on
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
AN OLD SIGNAL LIGHT.
hand for his friends. It is understood that the beer was obtained from a brewery near Lewiston, N. Y.
This is the old swing erected by the late Mr. Durnan forty-five years ago, and is still in active use. It stands in front of the present keeper’s house.
AN ALLEGED MURDER.
In 1794-1818 there was a blockhouse erected by Governor Simcoe at Gib- raltar Point, in which two guns were mounted, the battery being guarded by a detachment of soldiers, who came over every week from the fort at York. There were soldiers at this Blockhouse up to the year 1815 the close of the American war. The sol- diers often rowed down Blockhouse Bay in small boats to visit the light- house keeper, and when they could not get a boat, they walked to the point. Muller always made. them welcome. But one day a group of three who
who had been drinking in York, came over from the town and called on Muller to produce his beer keg. This he readily did, and when he saw that his military friends were having more than was good for them, he refused a further supply. The re- fusal onded in a fight and the fight ended in the death of Muller, for the soldiers finally beat him to death with
383
their belts and with a stick that was convenient.
DID THE MURDER EVER OCCUR.
This is the story that has been handed down from generation tc generation. There is no doubt that it has been garnished in the telling. It may be a fairy tale-and the writer is inclined to think it is made out of whole cloth-but Mr. George Durnan, the late light keeper, states that he heard the story from his father, and that he, the son, with his uncle Joe Durnan, found in 1893, bits of a coffin and part of the jaw bone of a man, four feet beneath the sand and about five hundred feet west of the present keeper’s house.
It was always claimed that Muller was buried west of the lighthouse, near the lagoon at the south end of Blockhouse Bay, and in order to verify the story, Mr. Durnan made the search with the above result.
A DOUBTFUL STORY. There is no record of a trial of soldiers for murder between 1808-17. nor is there any mention of such an happening in the Upper Canada Ga- zette published weekly in York, a paper which generally chronicled news
AN ANCHOR LIGHT.
384
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
of importance. Nor is there any re- Nor is there any reference to it in the Simcoe correspondence, civil or military. nor is proof that the murder ever took place. The Montreal papers often published Upper Canada news, but in neither the
་ས་བ་
AN OLD SWINO.
there any document, manuscript or printe form which contains even a reference to it, so there is no absolute
L
Gazette nor Herald is there any reference to such an event.
In 1903 two young men, who said
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
they were nephews of Muller, called upon Mr. George Durnan, and made enquiries about their relative and this story of his sad end. Mr. Durnan told them what he gave to the writer, nothing more. Mr. Muller was keeper of the lighthouse from 1808 until 1815, a period of eight years.
HALLOWAY THE SECOND KEEPER The second keeper of the lighthouse was a Mr. Halloway. He resided in the frame plank building that stands to-day just west of the two-storey frame house occupied lately by Mr. George Durnan, and now by the pres- ent keeper, Mr. McSherry. The plank or clapboard house is shown in the engraving as facing south, with a centre door in its front, and windows to the right and left. Mr. Halloway had a wife and two daughters and a nephew who lived with him. There is nothing known of the second keeper, but he was always very friendly with the officers, who used to make pilgrimages to the island in the duck and snipe season, and after a few hours’ sport, a bit of bread and cheese and a glass of milk, for the keeper kept a dun brown cow, was most acceptable to the visitors.
Mrs. Halloway was stout woman, pleasant looking, but he looks were somewhat discounted by the fact that she at one time in her life had small- pox, so that her face was marked. She was Mrs. Coates, a widow, when she married Halloway, and had one daugh- ter, Mary Ann, aged sixteen, and a younger daughter, named Hannah, of five years of age. Mary Ann in later years married a Mr. George Ernest, a ship caulker, who lived near the Gooderham Mill at the east end of York. Ernest was
drowned some years later.
Mrs. Halloway had a narrow escape from drowning, being rescued by James McGill Strachan, son of Bishop Strachan, and ever afterwards when she would meet him she made him thoroughly embarrassed by throwing her arms about him, and once, ’tis
said, she kissed him.
HALLOWAY PASSES AWAY.
In the winter of 1831, Mr. Halloway, whose health was not good, had a hemorrhage and bleeding from his lungs. His son, who lived in York, was notified, and drove over to the
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peninsula with a horse and sleigh, and took his father to the General Hospita! at the north-west corner of King and John Streets, where he died. He was the lightkeeper from 1816-31, or for a period of sixteen years. His wife was allowed by Mr. Durnan, the suc- ceeding keeper, to occupy the upper part of the keeper’s house till she was able to build a small home on the peninsula about a mile east of the lighthouse. Mrs. Halloway, a year after her husband’s death, married a carpenter named Lambert, an English- man who had recently emigrated. Both widow and daughter were mar- ried on the same night.
The night that Mrs. Halloway mar- ried her second husband, the fisher- men lighted a bonfire near her new house on the island and gave her the time honored chivaree.
JAMES DURNAN THIRD KEEPER. In 1830, James Durnan, a native of Belfast, in Ireland, a weaver by trade, emigrated to Canada.
Margaret
He brought, with
with him Hunter, his wife, Ann his eldest child, and his second child George, the late keeper of the lighthouse; and a daughter named Matilda also came, but she died soon after her arrival in Toronto. Ann, the eldest daughter, married Mr. James Armstrong, of Toronto.
THE DURNANS ADVENT.
The second year after arriving in Toronto, Mr. Durnan obtained the position of lightkeeper, succeeding Mr. Halloway in 1832, and to his family were added his sons, James William, who married Miss Jane Simpson, who lived in a cottage at the gate which led to the lighthouse, and whose house to was afterwards moved
Hanlan’s
Mr. Gray and his wife, and afterwards Point. It was occupied for years. by
by Mr. Heber, and then by Mr. Clegg as a summer hotel. It was demolished in 1906. When James William died his widow married Patrick Gray, who then built Heber’s Hotel. Henry, who
was drowned at the foot of York street about seven years ago, and Thomas, who lives in Toronto, and John who was drowned. Tamar, a daughter, married a Mr. Devlin and now resides in the United States. John married a Miss Emily Hanlan, a daughter of John Hanlan, and a sister of Ned Han-
386
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
CAPTAIN M’SHERRY THE LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER.
LANDMARKS OF LORONTO.
lan. By her he had two children Emily, who married Mr. E. A. English, of Toronto, the well known real estate) man; and Edward or “Eddie” Durnan, the oarsman. Her second husband is Mr. Lawrence Solman.
$87
feet to the original stone work, or 64 feet of stone. Above the stone work is the lantern cage, with gallery sur rounding it, and a weather vane. It is 18 feet from the highest part of the stone work to the vane, or eighty-two
T
THE LIGHTHOUSE, 1907.
The front faces east. The building to the left is The Lakeside Home for Little Children, near the Point, the summer home of the patients of the Hos- pital for Sick Children, Toronto.
HEIGHTENING THE SHAFT.
The lighthouse, as before stated, was originally 52 feet in height, but about 1832, the Government decided to increase its height, and added twelve
feet is the actual height of the light- This additional work Was house. of Kingston stone. Mr. James Baxter, a builder and contractor, father of the late Alderman John Baxter, had the contract and did an excellent
389
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
piece of work. He was assisted in his He was assisted in his work by James Durnan.
Mr. George Savage, the Collector of Customs of the port of Toronto had the supervision of the work while it was going on, he asked Mr. Baxter where he could get a good man to take charge of the light. “Why, sir,” said Baxter. ‘little Jimmy Durnan might take the job; try him.” And he did try, and successfully, and for twenty-two years be daily climbed the ninety steps of the stairway that leads from the, ground floor to the floor of the cage.
INDIANS ON THE PENINSULA. When Durnan’s mother heard that her son was to be lightkeeper. for Bax- ter went over to town to tell her, she was very much frightened, and asked: “Are there Indians on the Island and do the people who live there wear clothes?”
Mr. George Durnan relates that in the summer time, from 1834-40, there was an occasional camp of Indians at the birch tree ridge, a little east of Blockhouse Bay. These chil dren of the forest were fond of milk, and often came to the lightkeeper’s door and asked for a pitcher full and were seldom refused, if there was milk to spare. On one occasion two of them a man and a squaw-walked into the living room of the cabin to make their usual request, and just as they entered the room they saw that the family were at morning worship. With out a word they dropped upon their knees and bowed their heads until the rervice was finished, and then they got a quart of milk.
The keeper occupied for the first four years of his tenancy the plank built house used by Halloway, but about 1838 a one-storey frame cottage was erected east of the plank house, between it and the lighthouse, and Into this the small family moved.
It was a few years later improved by the addition in 1875 of another storey, as it stands to-day, occupied by Capt. Patrick McSherry.
SIR F. B. HEAD AND DURNAN. Mr. James Durnan used to relate an interesting talk he had with Sir Fran- cis Lond Head, who frequently rode over to the peninsula by way of the
swing bridge that crossed the Don River from the mainland, about the foot of Cherry street to the strip of sand that ran along the east side of the harbor, and continuing formed part of the peninsula. An old man named Patrick Redmond was the care- taker of the bridge. It was in the summer of 1836, just after the arrival of the Governor in the Province. He was interested in the lighthouse, and calling on calling on Durnan at his primitive cabin he asked about the lighthouse, its history and its keepers, and finally said: “Durnan, this is not a very com- fortable home for you to live in; if you’ll get up a petition to have it im- proved I’ll sign it and see that you get what you want.”
Mr. James Durnan died in 1853, and was lighthouse-keeper from 1832 until the time of his death, a period of twenty-two years.
GEO. DURNAN FOURTH KEEPER. In 1853 his eldest son, Mr. George Durnan, the late keeper, was appoint- ed. ed. Mr. Durnan in 1848 married Miss Sarah Bates. and had a large family. James, a carpenter, and Charles of the Toronto post office, both of whom are dead; Margaret Jane, who is living on Berkeley street; Sarah, who married Mr. Gordon, of Eglinton; George, Sam- uel, Hannah and Martha, all dead; John, who lives on Berkeley street, Toronto, and Arthur, now in the em- ploy of the Rice Lewis Company.
George Durnan’s first wife died, and he married his second wife, Miss Cath- erine Lang, and by her he had three sons, Wesley L., Walter W., and Alfred Milton.
THE LIGHTHOUSE LAMP.
The light from 1808-32 was a sta- tionary light and the cage was made of wood, but in 1878, the Government made a change and installed a revolv ing light, and then the cage was made of iron.
The floor area at the base or ground floor is 12 x 12, and it decreases in width till at the floor, just beneath the lantern, it is 8 x 8.
The entire lantern cage, including the floor and roof, is of iron.
When the light was stationary, the lamps were fed by winter pressed sperm oil, which was sent regularly from Montreal from 1808, until about
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
1833; when the oil at $2.10 per gallon was supplied by William Ware, the grocer at the north-west corner of King and Yonge streets, afterwards occupied by K. M. Sutherland & Co., and now the Lawlor Building. After 1863 coal oil was used instead of sperm oil. Two hundred gallons of oil are | used every season.
RUNS ON CLOCK PRINCIPLE.
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On the top of the case at the back is the governor or regulator, consist. ing of two “flanges,” one at each end of a short bar. When these “flanges” are straight there is more resistance and less speed; when they are flat there is less resistance and more speed. A fan governor regulates the speed.
LIGHTHOUSE FIRE-PROOF. The lamp machine is a very simple house where the lamps are located is The entire upper part of the light- yet effective contrivance. It was made by one Canteloup, and manufac-iron floor, iron window frames, iron fireproof, being constructed of iron- tured in Montreal, and Mr. Carrol, a Toronto builder put an iron floor in
the cage. The engraving shows its mechanism. It works on the clock principle and a heavy pendulum-like weight is the motive power. For purposes of description it may be divided into two parts, the upper and lower.
roof.
round its circumference, but at the The lantern originally had glass all suggestion of Mr. George Durnan, the Marine Department placed three flat sheets of iron on the side facing the city. The wicks used for the lamps are one and a half inches wide.
While the revolving light was being put up the stationary light was taken down and a large lautern was hung from the west side of the tower for the guidance of mariners,
SIGNALLING OF VESSELS.
The signalling system to notify the Harbormaster in York varied from 1808 until about 1845, when it was discon- tinued.
The upper portion consists of the lamps of which there are six. Each Each is set back in a powerful reflector so; that although the wick is of the or dinary variety only about two inches in width, the light can be seen at a distance of thirty miles out on the lake on a clear night. On an average night it is estimated it can be seen from fourteen to twenty miles.
The lights are so arranged that they sweep
In the time of Muller 1808-15 every direction at the same time. and in Halloway’s time, from 1816-31, While three lights are covering the a flag was flown from a twenty-foot west side, the other three are doing pole that stood on the platform which the same for the east side. Every third flash is a united ray of the three lights. One revolution is made in one minute, 48 seconds.
WILL RUN FOR FOURTEEN HOURS The lower part consists of the machinery which operates the lamps. in the iron case are three shafts. The driving shaft in the centre cogs with
the drum shaft at the front and the governor shaft at the back. Around the drum is wound about seventy-five
I feet of steel cable, at the end of which is attached about 600 or 700 pounds weight.
Before being started this cable is wound up, and as the lamps revolve: the cable gradually unwinds and the weight goes slowly down the barrel to the bottom of the lighthouse about seventy-five feet below. To fully un- wind occupies about fourteen hours.
surrounded the lantern cage, to indi- cate the arrival of the Government schooners from Niagara and from Kingston. The arrival from Niagara was signalled by a British Red En- sign and the arrival from Kingston by a Union Jack. The large oil painting made from a drawing of 1818, shows in the present City Hall, which is the red ensign upon the tower sig- nalling a vessel from Niagara.
ber of sailing vessels plying between There were between 1808-25 a num- Toronto and Niagara, “The Yacht.” “The Toronto,” and between Toronto
Toronto and Kingston “The Lady Gore,” and a score of others.
SIGNAL BY COLORED BALLS. But in 1832 the signalling system was again changed. Mr. James Dur- nan was small in stature, but unde. stood his business. He decided that with a series of colored balls al outcu.
390
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
feet in diameter he could make a more intelligent signalling.
These balls were of light canvas, stretched on a frame of cane, which being thin, was readily bent to the form of a b. ll. These balls were dis- played from the gallery around the lanterns, a red ball for a steamer from Kingston and eastern points, blue for a Niagara steamer and white for a schooner or other sailing crait.
These colors could easily be dis- tinguished with glasses by the harbor- master at the Government pier, now the Queen’s Wharf.
FLAGS AS SIGNALS.
About 1840 Mr. Durnan, with the ap- proval of Capt. Hugh Richardson, the harbormaster, made another change. The balls were inconvenient to handle, so he decided upon signalling with flags.
He erected a fifty-foot flag pole about forty feet north-west of the lighthouse and used red flags, two for a steamer and one for a schooner. ”
He alwa; s hoisted these flags when the coming vessel got in line with three large Balm of Gilead trees that up to 1849 stood at the west of the Island property, near the present co- ment sidewalk. The trees were blown down in 1850, but their stumps were there in 1880.
Mr. George Durnan resigned his po- sition as lightkeeper in 1905, after a continuous service of fifty-two years. The Government never had a more faithful servant. In his half century of labor the light never failed in its duty.
He was succeeded by Mr. Patrick J. McSherry, who now holds the position. He is an old marine man. capable and attentive, and understands all about bis work,
His charming wife is very much in- terested in the history of the old light- house, and her husband, the light- keeper has the lighthouse in perfect order, his dwelling is, by the band of his helpmate, as neat and tidy as the best house in the city, for Mrs. Mc- Sherry is a model housekeeper.
Mr. Durnan, talking about the pro-
pro-t posal to shut off the light. said: “I’m sure that mariners will object. It’s all very well to say we have the eastern g light and the Queen’s Wharf light.
CAPT. M’SHERRY.
Well, these lights are necessary, but the old light. they will not make up for the loss of
steamers and sailing vessels want to Captains of vessels,
know when they are off the west end of the island, and neither the east gap or Queen’s Wharf lights will give them this position.
“Many a time have schooners been aground off the Lighthouse Point, and many years ago many years ago one of the large steamers was ashore just south of The Lakeside Home.
“Just ask any mariner how he would get along in a storm or gale from the east. and how he could get round the point to Humber Bay with- out a landmark at night to guide him.
“You know there’s a lot of shoal water west of the western shore of the island, and there would be grave danger if the light that would warn sailors of their danger is to be re- moved.”
The people of Toronto were sur- prised to learn that an order had been issued by the Department of Marine at Ottawa to discontinue the light at the Toronto Island lighthouse on July 1st.
The order was in the form of the following letter sent to Capt. Mc- Sherry, the lightkeeper, which read:
LANDMARKS OF TORONTO.
“I have to advise you that it is the intention of the department to dis- continue the light at Gibraltar Point, on or about the 1st of July, although it may be later when the change is carried out, and I have therefore to inform you that your services will not be required by the department after the 1st of September, 1907.”
The department held that the keep- ing up of the light was an unneces- sary expense, claiming that mariners had sufficient guide to the port by the lights at the Queen’s Wharf, or west- ern entrance, and the lights at the pier at the eastern gap, the eastern entrance to the harbor.
The press of Toronto at once pro- tested. The steamer and other vessel men prepared petitions, which were signed by all the marine men in Tor- onto. These petitions pointed out that the continuance of the light was an absolute necessity, and that in east- erly gales it would be impossible to make the harbor unless the light at the west end of the Island was con- tinued. These petitions had their ef fect, and on June 27th the lightkeeper received the following letter from the Department:-
Ottawa, 26th June, 1907.
Sir, Referring to my letter of the 13th instant, intimating that it was the intention of the Department to discontinue the light under your charge at Gibraltar Point, I have to. inform you that it has now been de cided not to take this action, and you’ will, therefore, see that it is kept. in operation. I am, sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Sgd.) C. STANTON. For Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
Mr. P. J. McSherry, Lightkeeper, Gibraltar Point, Toronto, Ont. And now you have the story of the old landmark-the Lighthouse at the Point.
The foregoing Landmark was writ- ten in June, 1907, when Mr. George Durnan and his wife were both alive. and it was fortunate that the work of writing up the history, was completed at that time for on the 11th day of August Mrs. Durnan died at her home, 71 Bleecker street, Toronto, and on the 5th day of September, three weeks after, her husband also passed away.

Radelmüller, Gibraltar Point Lighthouse Keeper: New Light on Toronto’s Oldest Cold Case

Radelmüller, Gibraltar Point Lighthouse Keeper: New Light on Toronto’s Oldest Cold Case



By Eamonn O’Keeffe
The murder of John Paul Radelmüller Radelmuller is one of Toronto’s oldest mysteries and the city’s most enduring ghost story. His restless apparition supposedly haunts the Gibraltar Point Lighthouse on the Toronto Islands, seeking justice for a long-ago crime.
Most who grew up in Toronto can recall the tale of the first lighthouse keeper’s demise:
The Gibraltar Point Lighthouse
On the evening of 2 January 1815, soldiers from Fort York paid Radelmüller a visit for his bootlegged beer, sold to supplement his modest income. A dispute broke out, quickly escalated, and Radelmüller was murdered. The drunken soldiers, anxious to hide their crime, dismembered the corpse and concealed his remains near the lighthouse.
A dramatic story, but is it true? Newspaper publisher and historian John Ross Robertson was the first to record the legend nearly a century later in Landmarks of Toronto, as recounted to him by long-time lighthouse keeper George Durnan.[1] But Robertson himself harboured doubts and suspected the whole yarn was a ‘fairy tale’.[2] Though Durnan claimed to have discovered fragments of a coffin and part of a jawbone near the lighthouse in 1893, it was impossible to prove a link with his unfortunate predecessor.[3] Much ink has been spilled on the case since, serving more to embellish this urban myth than to ascertain its veracity. This article aims to establish the story of Radelmüller’s demise as history, not hearsay. His ghost may or may not haunt the 13th step of the lighthouse stairs, but the fundamental details of the legend are fact, not fable.
Born in Anspach in modern-day Bavaria circa 1763, John Paul Radelmüller had brown hair, blue eyes, and stood 5’10”.[4] He immigrated to England as a young man, serving for 16 years as Chamber Hussar to George III’s brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester.[5] After a brief return to Anspach, Radelmüller rejoined the Royal Household as a porter of Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent and future father of Queen Victoria, accompanying him to Halifax in 1799.[6] He later served as a steward for Sir John Wentworth, Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia. But wishing to ‘redire [sic] a little before I die’, the aging Radelmüller quit and sought a land grant in Upper Canada, arriving at York on New Year’s Day 1804.[7] J. P. Radelmüller’s Signature (1805)
Yet events did not go according to plan and his requests for Crown Reserve land in Markham amongst fellow German homesteaders were denied.[8] Despite this setback, Radelmüller established a school to teach English to the children of these settlers and also served as an interpreter for the German community in Upper Canada. While based in Markham, he penned the German translation of an 1806 government-sponsored agricultural tract, Remarks on the culture and preparation of Hemp in Canada (1806). This pamphlet was designed to encourage farmers cultivate to cultivate hemp for export to Britain, where it was used to make rope for the Royal Navy. Radelmüller was appointed as the first keeper of the lighthouse on Gibraltar Point on 24 July 1809.[9] John Paul Radelmüller married a young German woman named Magdalene Burkholder in 1810 and had one daughter, Arabella.[10] He served at the lighthouse throughout the War of 1812, keeping watch for approaching vessels and maintaining the sperm whale oil lamp. Far from the unscrupulous bootlegger of myth, this former servant of royalty was well-regarded for his ‘inoffensive and benevolent character’.[11] But whatever his personality, Radelmüller’s life came to a tragic end on the evening of 2 January 1815.
York Gazette Report 14 January 1815
Twelve days later, the weekly York Gazette brought news of the ‘horrid crime’, noting that the circumstances afforded ‘every moral proof’ of Radelmüller’s ‘most barbarous and inhuman’ murder. The notice added: ‘The parties last with him are the supposed perpetrators, and are imprisoned.’[12] But who were the alleged killers? According to court minute books, John ‘Blowman’ and John Henry were tried for murder on 31 March, with Chief Justice Thomas Scott presiding.[13] Regimental pay lists prove that the accused were indeed soldiers: John Blueman and John Henry, both of the Glengarry Light Infantry, a unit that saw heavy action during the War of 1812.[14] These men were not however the redcoats of myth: their regiment wore green uniforms modeled on those of the celebrated 95th Rifles.
Glengarry Light Infantry Private, 1812-16. (G.A. Embleton, Parks Canada)
Irish-born Blueman joined the Glengarries first, enlisting for three years on 9 March 1812.[15] He served in the war’s bitter Niagara campaign, and probably fought at the Battle of Fort George in May 1813.[16] Henry by contrast was a comparatively new recruit who probably never saw action. He was attested on 6 July 1814 at Montreal for three years’ service. A sailor born in Antrim, Ireland, Henry was 18 years old at enlistment. He had blue eyes, brown hair, a fair complexion and stood 5’4” in height.[17] At the time of the alleged murder, Blueman and Henry may have been posted at the lonely blockhouse on Gibraltar Point, which guarded entry to York’s harbour. Robertson claimed that the small detachment garrisoned there often visited the keeper for drinks.[18] The men stationed at this isolated post enjoyed much less supervision than their counterparts across the harbour at Fort York and were just over a mile’s walk along the sandbar from Radelmüller’s beer keg.[19] In the dock on 31 March, both Blueman and Henry pled not guilty. The prosecution called seven witnesses, including David Thomson, a forefather of the billionaire Thomson media family and a mason who helped rebuild Fort York in 1815. Coroner Thomas Cooper also testified, filling in for his businessman father William, the official coroner for the Home District. At least three and probably four of the other Crown witnesses were privates of the Glengarry Light Infantry, presumably summoned to give evidence on the actions or whereabouts of Blueman and Henry on January 2nd.[20] Unfortunately, history has not graced us with the proceedings of the trial, only the outcome: both men were acquitted of murder.[21] Perhaps innocence was proven or mitigating circumstances established; there may simply have been insufficient evidence to secure a guilty verdict. On 15 April, the York Gazette announced: ‘No conviction of the supposed murderers of the late J.P. Raddelmuller.’[22] Irvine’s View of York, c. 1816, depicting the Lighthouse, Keeper’s Cottage (far left) and the Gibraltar Point Blockhouse in the middle distance (Art Gallery of Ontario, ID 2946)
Many of the details surrounding the keeper’s demise will forever be left to the imagination. The whereabouts of Magdalene and Arabella on the evening of 2 January, for example, remain unknown, although his widow did not testify at trial.
The death of a foreign-born lighthouse keeper across the harbour apparently merited scant attention from the people of York. Little correspondence has been found discussing the case; even the usually comprehensive diarist Ely Playter fails to mention the murder.[23] Though writing almost a century later, Robertson provides the only account of the night’s events. According to Durnan family oral tradition, he wrote, the keeper was beaten to death for refusing to give the inebriated soldiers another round of drinks. Another version – that Radelmüller was murdered when the soldiers discovered he had cheated them by watering down their whiskey – has recently become popular, but is a modern elaboration on the traditional tale without any documentary basis.
Yet in the absence of further contemporary evidence, the central question of precisely how Radelmüller met his end can never be answered with certainty. That said, the corroboration of other facets of Robertson’s account by surviving evidence certainly bodes well for the overall reliability of the tale related to him by Durnan.
Radelmüller’s Cottage, c. 1908 (Toronto Public Library, Baillie Room, No. B 13-79)
Neither contemporary documents nor Robertson’s account discuss the precise location of the murder. Spine-chilling stories of blood oozing from the 13th step notwithstanding, Radelmüller would surely have hosted the soldiers in his keeper’s cottage, not in the lighthouse’s cramped staircase. Constructed alongside the lighthouse in 1809, this cozy cabin – a more likely setting for the night’s events – stood until about 1950.
The account in Landmarks of Toronto is the sole source for the common belief that the lighthouse keeper doubled as a bootlegger. Yet Robertson’s claim that Radelmüller’s beer was bought from a ‘brewery near Lewiston, N. Y.’ and smuggled across the lake to York seems far-fetched in light of the ongoing War of 1812, as patrolling warships would have made such long-distance rum-running hazardous in the extreme. If he was indeed a bootlegger, it is more plausible to suggest that the keeper, taking advantage of his isolation at the lighthouse, operated his own liquor still, supplementing his income by selling beer and spirits to the garrison of the Gibraltar Point Blockhouse.
But while investigation has supported much of the traditional legend, rumours of the gruesome fate of Radelmüller’s corpse appear completely unfounded. While a missing body makes for a better ghost story, neither Robertson nor any period sources describe the killers mutilating and concealing the keeper’s remains or even claim that Radelmüller disappeared at all. In fact, contemporary reports laconically note his ‘unfortunate death’ without displaying any of the uncertainty that would inevitably have arisen in the absence of a body.[24] A close reading of Robertson’s account provides the final nail in the coffin, so to speak, clearly implying that Durnan understood Radelmüller’s corpse to have been respectfully buried, not hacked to pieces and scattered.[25] The discovery of coffin fragments found alongside a jawbone in 1893, if indeed linked to Radelmüller, would support such a conclusion, but does not tally with a hasty burial by fugitive killers. Contrary to oft-repeated claims that the keeper was ‘never seen again’, all evidence suggests that Radelmüller’s body did not vanish in the first place, but was found, examined by the coroner and laid to rest near the lighthouse.
Blueman and Henry had escaped the death penalty but neither remained in the army for long. His term of enlistment complete, Blueman was discharged on 28 April 1815 while Henry deserted from the Glengarry Light Infantry on 30 June.[26] Like many former soldiers, Blueman received a location ticket in 1816 for 100 acres in Sophiasburgh, Prince Edward County as a reward for his service.[27] Although Blueman never settled there permanently, he later had second thoughts on homesteading. Blueman’s 1830 petition for another land grant was approved though no lot was apparently ever assigned to him.[28] In 1816, John Paul Radelmüller’s widow and brother-in-law, Michael Burkholder, secured title for 200 acres in Reach Township in trust for Arabella in posthumous fulfillment of her father’s 1805 land petition.[29] Just four or five years old at her father’s murder, Arabella grew up, married, and had seven children before her own death in 1844, aged 34.[30] The story of John Paul Radelmüller’s unfortunate demise has become one of Toronto’s most cherished myths. The tale has no doubt been ‘garnished in the telling’, as Robertson warned, but nonetheless remains firmly rooted in fact.[31] We may never know precisely how Radelmüller gave up the ghost on 2 January 1815, nor whether that ghost still haunts the Gibraltar Point lighthouse. But perhaps it does – if not in search of its dismembered corpse then at least in pursuit of its pilfered jawbone!
Interested in learning more?
Read John Ross Robertson’s account from Landmarks of Toronto, peruse one of Radelmüller’s petitions or check out selected primary sources related to the murder.
This article was nominated for the 2016 Heritage Toronto Awards
Written and researched by Eamonn O’Keeffe
The author is grateful to Steve Otto, Ron W. Shaw, Ruth Burkholder, Chris McKay and Winston Johnston for their advice and assistance.
Want to get in touch? Click here to contact the author.
New Light on Toronto’s Oldest Cold Case first appeared in the December 2015 issue of The Fife and Drum, published by the Friends of Fort York.
Note: John Paul Radelmüller’s name is spelled several different ways in both contemporary documents and secondary sources. John Ross Robertson termed him ‘Muller’ while the York Gazette called him ‘J.P. Rademuller’ and ‘J.P. Raddelmuller’. Other variants include Radan Muller, Radelmuller, Radenmuller, Rattelmullar or Radelmiller. However, as proven by his surviving signatures, the man signed his own name as J.P. Radelmüller.[1] John Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, Fifth Series (Toronto: 1908), pp. 378-85.[2] Ibid, p. 383.[3] Ibid.[4] Phyllis H. White, Oaths of Allegiance sworn before William Willcocks, J.P. 1800-1806 and Robert Baldwin, 1800-1812, (Toronto: 1993), p. 14. See also manuscript Oaths of Allegiance, No. 82, John Paul Rattelmullar, sworn 14 May 1805, Toronto Reference Library Special Collections.[5] 1 January 1808, Library and Archives Canada (LAC), Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 7, p. 2789. The Royal Archives at Windsor Castle were contacted in October 2015 in an effort to confirm Radelmüller’s royal service. Unfortunately, the archivists were unable to offer assistance as they held few records on the households of the Duke of Gloucester or the Duke of Kent for this period.[6] 1 January 1808, LAC, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 7, p. 2789-90.[7] Ibid, p. 2791.[8] Ibid, p. 2793 and 4 August 1804, LAC, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 3, pp. 1209-1212.[9] For his date of appointment, see 7 August 1809, LAC, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 10, p. 4152. Regarding Remarks on the culture and preparation of Hemp in Canada, Radelmüller spent eight days in York assisting the printer and correcting the work; he was paid £4 6s for his services. See J. Dilevko, “Printing for New Communities in German and Gaelic” in P.L. Fleming, G. Gallichan and Y. Lamonde, History of the Book in Canada, Volume 1: Beginnings to 1840 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), p.290 and n.77, p.449.[10] They were married on 20 March 1810. See Marriage Records of St James’ Church (now Cathedral), York. This was not Radelmüller’s first marriage: he wed Charlotte Horatia Sharp on 31 May 1792 at the church of St George’s, Hanover Square in London whilst still serving the Duke of Gloucester. See The Register Book of Marriages Belonging to the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square, in the County of Middlesex, Vol. 2, 1788-1809 (London: 1888), p. 78.[11] The York Gazette, 14 January 1815, Toronto Reference Library microfilm.[12] Ibid.[13] Archives of Ontario (AO), Court of Queen’s [sic–King’s] Bench assize minute books, Criminal Assize 1810-1819, RG 22-134-0-4, microfilm MS 530, reel 2, pp. 190, 192. The men were indicted by a grand jury on 29 March 1815 and tried by a petit jury on 31 March.[14] The National Archives (UK) (TNA), WO 12/10800, Glengarry Light Infantry Pay Lists. The December-March 1815 entries for both Blueman and Henry note: ‘Detained by the Civil Power, York, Acquitted’.[15] TNA, WO 25/579, Glengarry Light Infantry Description Book, p. 5, and 9 February 1830, LAC, Upper Canada Land Petitions RG 1, L 3, vol. 51, p. 29.[16] TNA, WO 164/556, Niagara Frontier 1813 Prize List, p. 127.[17] TNA, WO 25/579, Glengarry Light Infantry Description Book, p. 81, and WO 25/2201, Glengarry Light Infantry Casualty Returns, No. 19, June-July 1815. The former source notes Henry as a labourer, while the latter records him as a sailor.[18] Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, Fifth Series (Toronto: 1908), p. 383.[19] While the number of men posted at the blockhouse in early 1815 was not noted in the Glengarry Light Infantry’s monthly returns, the Canadian Regiment’s returns record that Serjeant Donald Fraser and twenty men garrisoned Gibraltar Point on 25 April 1815. See TNA, WO 17/298, Glengarry Light Infantry and Canadian Regiment of Fencible Infantry Monthly Returns, and WO 12/10526, Canadian Regiment Pay Lists, March-June 1815.[20] AO, RG 22-134-0-4, microfilm MS 530, reel 2, p. 192. The witnesses from the Glengarry Light Infantry were Privates John Moore, Joshua Pitt, Thomas Plested and ‘Lewis Newor’ – presumably Private Louis Naddeau. See TNA, WO 12/10800, Glengarry Light Infantry Pay Lists and Winston Johnston, The Glengarry Light Infantry, 1812-1816 (Charlottetown: Benson, 2003).[21] AO, RG 22-134-0-4, microfilm MS 530, reel 2, p. 192.[22] The York Gazette, 15 April 1815, Toronto Reference Library microfilm.[23] AO, Ely Playter fonds, F 556-0-0-10, microfilm reel MS 87.[24] See 5 January 1815, LAC, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 22, p. 9229-30, and 6 January 1815, p. 9236.[25] Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, Fifth Series (Toronto: 1908), p. 383.[26] TNA, WO 12/10800, Glengarry Light Infantry Pay Lists, June-September 1815, and WO 25/2201, Glengarry Light Infantry Casualty Returns, No. 19, June-July 1815.[27] 21 May 1816, LAC, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 28, p. 12894.[28] 9 February 1830, LAC, Upper Canada Land Petitions RG 1, L 3, vol. 51, p. 29, and AO, Registers of warrants for land grants – military, RG 1-160-2-1, MS 693 reel 139, p. 49.[29] AO, Second Heir and Devisee Commission, RG 40-0259, MS 657 reel 17, Claim of Arabella Radelmüller, and 14 May 1805, LAC, Upper Canada Land Petitions, RG 1, L 3, vol. 425, p. 24-24c.[30] Arabella Radelmüller married Adam Rupert and died on 19 September 1844. She is buried under the name Ann Miller with her husband in the Maple United Cemetery in Vaughan, Ontario.[31] Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, Fifth Series (Toronto: 1908), p. 383.
Bibliography
Primary Sources
The National Archives (TNA) Kew, London (UK)
WO 12/10800, Glengarry Light Infantry Pay Lists, 1815.
WO 25/579, Glengarry Light Infantry Description Book, pp. 5, 81.
WO 25/2201, Glengarry Light Infantry Casualty Returns, No. 19, June-July 1815.
WO 164/556, Niagara Frontier 1813 Prize List, Glengarry Light Infantry, p. 127.
Library and Archives Canada (LAC)
4 August 1804, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 3, pp. 1209-12.
1 January 1808, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 7, pp. 2789-95.
7 August 1809, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 10, pp. 4152-54.
5 January 1815, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 22, pp. 9229-30.
6 January 1815, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 22, p. 9236.
21 May 1816, Upper Canada Sundries, RG 5, A 1, vol. 28, p. 12894.
14 May 1805, Upper Canada Land Petitions, RG 1, L 3, vol. 425, pp. 24-24c.
9 February 1830, Upper Canada Land Petitions RG 1, L 3, vol. 51, p. 29.
Archives of Ontario (AO)
Court of Queen’s Bench assize minute books, Criminal Assize 1810-1819, RG 22-134-0-4, microfilm MS 530, reel 2, pp. 190, 192.
Ely Playter fonds, 1815 diary, F 556-0-0-10, microfilm MS 87.
Registers of warrants for land grants – military, RG 1-160-2-1, microfilm MS 693 reel 139, p. 49.
Second Heir and Devisee Commission, RG 40-0259, microform MS 657 reel 17, Claim of Arabella Radelmüller.
Toronto Reference Library (TRL)
Manuscript Oaths of Allegiance, Special Collections, No. 82, John Paul Rattelmullar, sworn 14 May 1805.
The York Gazette, microfilm, 14 January and 15 April 1815.
Secondary Sources
Winston Johnston, The Glengarry Light Infantry, 1812-1816 (Charlottetown: Benson, 2003).
John Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, Fifth Series (Toronto: 1908), p. 378-385.
Phyllis H. White, Oaths of Allegiance sworn before William Willcocks, J.P. 1800-1806 and Robert Baldwin, 1800-1812, (Toronto: 1993), p. 14.
John Paul Radelmuller; John Paul Radan Muller; John Paul Radenmuller; John Paul Radelmiller; J.P. Radelmuller

Postscript:
The pamphlet Radelmüller translated, “Remarks on the culture and preparation of hemp in Canada”, can be found here:
https://archive.org/details/cihm_20892

Island Flavours – Personal Recipes from the Homes of Toronto Islanders

Island Flavours – Personal Recipes from the Homes of Toronto Islanders

Island Flavours – Personal Recipes from the Homes of Toronto Islanders

  • Drawings by:  Gail Read
  • Design by:  Gail Read and Anne Broecker
  • Date:  Dec 1976
  • Provenance:  from the collection of Nina Zhelka
  • Digitized by:  Eric Zhelka
  • Notes:
    RECIPES COLLECTED OVER THE YEARS BY THE TORONTO ISLAND RESIDENTS
    DRAWINGS © COPYRIGHT 1976 BY GAIL READ
    DRAWINGS MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED WITHOUT PERMISSION
    CELEBRATIONS BY ELIZABETH AMER
    DESIGN BY GAIL READ AND ANNE BROECKER
    A SPECIAL THANK YOU IS EXTENDED TO GREEY DE PENCIER PUBLISHERS, AND IN PARTICULAR, FOR THE GUIDANCE OF GREG BUTLER; TO BARBARA ROERICK FOR HER TYPING SKILLS, AND TO ALL THOSE WHO, FROM THE EARLY BEGINNINGS TO THE PRESENT REALITY, HAVE HELPED IN MAKING THIS BOOK. PUBLISHED BY THE IPS ISLAND HOME & SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. PRINTED BY TRIANGLE GRAPHIC SERVICES, 70 ADVANCE ROAD, TORONTO.
    DECEM8ER 1976

    “Islanders have long been known for their gourmet meals. Anyone who has been fortunate enough to take the fabulous dishes that are served on GALA DAY must agree. Now you have an opportunity to try some of these mouth-watering recipes that have been treasured by many Islanders over the years. Here is a book full of tantalizing appetizers, hearty main courses, spectacular desserts and exciting fun foods with simple, easy-to-follow recipes. In addition, it is also a book full of sketches drawn by an Island artist Gail Read Labonte-Smith. These drawings will take you on a nostalgic tour through the Islands as you try your culinary skills with the many personal recipes listed in the book. Anyone who receives this cookbook will have something to retain forever as a fond reminder of the unique way of life that exists in the Island Community.”
    Ted Currie
    Principal, Island Public School


PERSONAL RECIPES
A BLEND OF RECIPES, DRAWINGS AND CELEBRATIONS FROM THE HOMES OF TORONTO ISLANDERS
PROCEEDS FROM THE SALE OF ISLAND FLAVOURS
GO TO SUPPORT THE ISLAND PUBLIC SCHOOL
RECIPES COLLECTED OVER THE YEARS BY
THE TORONTO ISLAND RESIDENTS
DRAWINGS BY GAIL READ COPYRIGHT 1976
DRAWINGS MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED WITHOUT
PERMISSION
CELEBRATIONS BY ELIZABETH AMER
DESIGN BY GAIL READ AND ANNE BROECKER
A SPECIAL THANK YOU IS EXTENDED TO GREEY
DE PENCIER PUBLISHERS, AND IN PARTICULAR, FOR
THE GUIDANCE OF GREG BUTLER; TO BARBARA ROERICK
FOR HER TYPING SKILLS, AND TO ALL THOSE WHO,
FROM THE EARLY BEGINNINGS TO THE PRESENT REALITY,
HAVE HELPED IN MAKING THIS BOOK.
PUBLISHED BY THE ISLAND HOME & SCHOOL
ASSOCIATION
PRINTED BY TRIANGLE GRAPHIC SERVICES,
70 ADVANCE ROAD, TORONTO
DECEM8ER 1976
2
METRIC CONVERSION
Solid Measure
ounces grams
Temperature
Fluid Measure
ounces
Crunchy GRANOLA (cereal or snack)
14
2
1-2
l
cups (about 3 lbs.) oatmeal
cups wheat germ
cups unsweetened coconut
cup raw sunflower seeds
l
1-1/2
(found in health food store)
cup sesame seeds
cups brown sugar (all lumps out)
Mix all dry ingredients in a bowl then add wet
ingredients:
l cup water
l cup corn oil (or other veg. oil)
l tsp. vanilla
l tsp. salt
Bake at 325° on cookie sheet with lip. Stir
while cooking until crisp and golden, about
20 mins. Mixture should be no higher than the
lip on the pan. Serve with milk as cereal, or
as a dry snack. This recipe has coconut and
sunflower seeds which aren 1 t found in prepacked
granola sold in stores.
Kewpie Cox
MORNING PEP DRINK
This is great for mothers – it really gives you
energy.
4 cups milk
2 tsps. brewer’s yeast
3 tsps. wheat germ
1/4 cup frozen undiluted orange Juice
l banana or 1/2 cup unsweetened pineapple
Just b l erd for 20 seconds. Makes 4 1/2 cups.
Cathy Dasey
9
6 arge fresh m shrooms
6 z. s\-.eet Italian sausage
1 c O e garlic, minced
3 t s. m·n ed parsley
/4 c grate Parmesan cheese
7s (rem e stems and chop fie).
g fr m sausages and_put meat 1n . c pped stems,garl1c ad l_tbs. 011.
p meat with fork until lightly
1 tbs. oil ,the parsley and cheese.
cavities with the mixture, rounding
in shallow baking pan, put remaining
p water in pan. Bake in preheated
t 20 minutes. Serve hot.
SEE AD SOUR CHICKEN WINGS
25 large chicken wings
1 cup -via ter
1 cup soy sauce
1 cup brown suga .
1/4 cup pineapple Juice
1/4 cup salad oil
Maria Metcalfe
1 tsp. garlic powder
1 tsp. ground ginger
ingredients and pour over wings in sha ow_ 15
n Refrigerate several hours. covered. Place wings
tro ghed baking sheet and bake uncovered at
3500 for 45 minutes till brown.
Madeleine Walwyn
10
oz. butter
oz. flour
oz. cheddar cheese
egg yolk
pinch salt and cayenne
Sieve flour,cut in butter. Grate cheese, mix into
flour. Add salt, cayenne, egg yolk. Turn paste
on to floured board, roll to 1/8″ thick. Cut into
strips 4″xl”. Bake 400° for 7 minutes.
CHEESE HORS D’OEUVRES
1 cup butter, softened
16 oz. cottage cheese
2 cups flour
grated cheddar cheese
Jean Parsons
bacon strips cut in thirds, lightly fried
(or other meat, fish, clams, oysters, etc.)
Blend butter and cottage cheese. Pour into bowl
and add flour. Roll into small balls. Flatten
on cookie sheet. sprinkle with grated cheese and
top with slice of bacon. Bake 450° 10-15 mins.
or so.
Kate Verweij
DEVILLED EGGS
Salmon: 2 tbs. salmon paste, 1 tsp. lemon juice,
dash of rose colour and mayonnaise.
Parsley: 1 tbs. parsley, chopped, black pepper, few
drops onion juice and green colour and
mayonnaise.
Curry: 1/2 tsp.curry powder, 2tbs. liver paste,
few drops onion juice and mayonnaise.
Garnish with sliced radishes, green peppers,
parsley, pimento or sliced stuffed olives.
Harry Burman
11
RUMAKI
6 chicken livers (about 1/2 lb.)
18 water chestnuts
9 bacon slices cut in half
9 green onions, sliced lengthwise
1/2 cup soy sauce
1/4 tsp. ground ginger
1/2 tsp. curry powder
Slice cicken livers into 3 pieces each. Combine
l piece liver with one water chestnut, then wrap
l slice onion and 1/2 slice bacon around them,
securing with toothpick. Marinate in soy sauce,
ginger and curry mixture for l hour. Drain, broil
in preheated broiler, turning once, till bacon is
thoroughly cooked. Makes 18 .
SHRIMP BUBBLES
cup butter
ounce pkg.
cup flour
cup light
cream cheese
cream
Cathy Welch
Pas try:
1/2
8
l
1/3
Filling:
4-1/2 ounce can shrimp, drained and mashed
(or 4-1/2 oz. can of deviled ham)
Mix
2 tsp. soy sauce
l tbs. steak sauce
1 tsp. instant minced garlic
l tsp. instant minced onion
1/2 tsp. M.S.G.
above ingredients well.
Cut butter and cream cheese into flour in
mixing bowl until mixture is size of small
peas. Add cream, stirring until a dough forms.
Roll on a floured board to 1/8″ thickness. Cut
into circles with a 2″ cutter. Place a scant
teaspoon of filling in centre of each circle.
Fold in half; seal edges. Bake at 350° for
20 mi ns. Serve hot. Makes 2 doz.
Linda
13
LEMON
Bring to boil, add lemon
r,. dd fruit juices. Pour in
er ce. Add beer. Just before
em n slices with cloves.
Nina Kilpatrick
east a week before serving so it will
a es a gallon and some.
– egg whites until stiff. Beat in l/2 cup
Beat 15 egg yolks, l cup sugar,l/2 tsp.
t. ery light. Combine egg mixtures, and
ti ended. Add l quart heavy cream,
oec-e ,
Bea- we
2 d ix
art milk, l quart Bourbon whisky.
,and add l cup rum. Store in cool cellar
thoroughly when ready to serve.
G E E I
2 c ps dry red wine
l cup water
4 slices lemon
1/2 cup sugar
4 whole cloves
2 cinnamon sticks
Brenda Willis
Bring everything to a boil. Simmer 10-15 mins:
Serve after outdoor activity.
14
WARD’S ISLAND CLUBHOUSE
DANDELION / SPRUCE WINE
On a dry spring day, when the sun is high in the
sky,go out and get yourself 1 gallon of dandelion
blossoms and 1/4 peck of the new growth from the
ends of Black Spruce twigs. Put in a 2 gallon
crock, pour l gallon boiling water over and let
twigs and flowers steep for 3 days. Then strain
liquid through jelly cloth or similar device and
put in kettle. Add 1 small ginger root, thinly
pared peels and juice of 3 oranges and 1 lemon;
stir in 3 lb. honey and boil gently for 20 mins.
Return liquid to crock and allow to cool until
lukewarm. Add some yeast, softened, and cover
crock; keep in a warm dark place for l month,
then decant into bottles and cork. Six months
to a year later, on an evening when the moon is
full, open up a bottle and discover another
aspect of those noxious little weeds that cause
suburban lawn manicurists to gnash their teeth.
(If cloudy formations develop in the wine after
bottling, they can easily be removed by straining
liquid through fine cloth).
15
pats of butter
r app e j ice into large saucepan. Place over
m heat and bring to boiling point. Stir in
ted frozen ice and sugar. Tie cinnamon
st·c s ad clo es together in a small piece of
c ,eese loth and drop into saucepan.
A lo mixt re to return to boiling point. Lower
eat and simmer gently (uncovered) for 15 mins .
emove spice bag. Pour punch into bowl and float
le, on slices on top. Serve hot with a butterball
or pat of butter in each cup.
Freya Godard
PUNCH
? tbs. sugar
1 quart fresh strawberries, quartered
1 cup fresh cherries, quartered
8 oz. brandy
4 oz. kirsch
4 oz. triple sec.
Combine the above and chill. Put into punch bowl,
add large ice block and
2 bottles Champagne
2 bottles Sauterne
Makes 50 servings. Cathy Welch
16
WARD’S ISLAND CLUBHOUSE.
17
SOUPS
HOUSES, WARD’S ISLAD
POTATO AND LEEK SOUP
Melt in a glass or enamel saucepan
4 tbs. butter – add, cut fine,
4 leeks (white part)
1 onion
Cook very slowly until vegetables are tender
Add 2 cups chicken stock
2 sprigs parsley
2 small stalks celery
2 potatoes, slice thin
salt and pepper to taste
few grains nutmeg or curry powder
few drops Worcestershire Sauce
Cook until potatoes are tender. Put through
a very fine sieve or mix in electric blender.
Add more stock if necessary to make 2 cups.
Just before serving, stir in
1 cup heavy cream.
Serve hot or icy cold. Sprinkle with finely
chopped parsley, chives or dill. Serves 8.
Anne Broecker
19
CLEAR TOMATO SOUP
l large tin tomatoes
1 pint water
1 slice onion
2 tbs. sugar
pepper
4 cloves
l tsp. salt
Boil 2 mins. Strain. Add pinch of soda. Blend
l tsp. butter and l tsp. flour. Boil very slowly
till thick.
Ms. Genera 1 i ty
WINTER CARNIVAL
MXICAN BLACK BEAN SOUP
1-1/2
7
l
1/2
1
cups black beans
cups water
large onion, chopped
large green pepper, sliced
stalk celery, diced
juice of 1 lime
salt to taste
Tabasco (optional) 1 dash
Fry onion, green peppers, celery in a little butter
and oil till onions are golden. Add beans and
water, lime juice and Tabasco. Salt to taste.
Cook in a big covered pot till beans are very soft
with no crunchiness. Serve with a tray of
condiments as foilows:
1. Chopped chives (green onions are good when
chives are out of season)
2. Finely chopped radishes
3. Finely chopped hot chilis
4. Small sections of limes
OXTAIL SOUP
4 large or 8 small Oxtails
1 can consommé or beef broth
flour
seasoning
mazola oil
carrots
turnip
Cathy Dasey
Remove excess fat from oxtails. Coat in seasoned
flour. Brown on all sides. Pour a1vay fat.
. Add
consomme and water (approx. 1-1/2 cans), boil,
then turn heat to simmer for 2-3 hrs. Add prepared
vegetables during last hour.
Judy Marsh
21 –
l ba leaf
1/2 nion
clo e garlic
clove
1/ c p wine vinegar
l tsp. salt
6 pepper corns, crushed coarsely
Pace bay leaf on flat side of onion. Secure
gar ic through bay leaf; next attach clove.
d vinegar, salt and pepper. Cook 5 min.
iscard onion. Cool vinegar.
3 cups chicken stock (no fat)
4 medium ripe tomatoes (seeded)
l small onion
l green pepper
l cucumber (seeded)
l tbs. chopped parsley
1/4 cup dry sherry
salt and pepper to taste
1/2 cup olive oil
Mix all ingredients together except olive oil.
(I put them through the food millJ If tomatoes
are not rich enough in colour, add 1/2 cup
tomato puree. Refrigerate until ready to use.
Add oil just before serving. Accompany with
diced tomatoes, green peppers, cucumber and
toasted breaded crumbs. Serves 8.
Nina Kilpatrick
VEGETAR IAN VEGETABLE SOUP
This is great! First fry up one onion, chopped,
l stalk celery, chopped, l diced carrot, thyme,
l clove garlic, and parsley, then add l can
V-8 juice and fill the can with water and put
that in. Add 1-1/2 cups mixed beans and barley
and rice (cooks faster if these are soaked
overnight). Salt to taste and cook for 4 hrs.
or until done.
Cathy Dasey
22
24 LAKESHOR£. AVE
I
1111
23
A Simple Salad . . Bean Salad . . . . Cranberry Orange al ad. French Dressing . Frosted Cranberry oulds. Green Jellied Sala Jellied Carrot Salad. Potato Salad . . . . . Butternut Squash Pudding . . . . . . . . . Carrots with Onions . . . . . . . . . . . Fried Rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German Red Cabbage . . . . Green Beans and Mushrooms lasi Goreng . . . . . . . Potato Pancakes . . . . . tomatoes with Garlic Croutons JLLL1LU lkKKU SALAD 2 envelopes plain gelatin 2 cups apple juice 1/4 cup sugar 1/2 tsp. salt l cup celery l cup shredded carrot nuts and raisins Heat apple juice (don’t boil) and dissolve in it sugar, salt and gelatin, softened in a little water. Cool until partially set, then fold in remaining ingredients. Pour into a ring mould . Chi 11 until set. Turn out onto platter and serve with mayonnaise coloured with food colouring put in the centre of rinq. Bonnie !Nin Sally Livinqstone FRENCH DRESSING l cup salad oil l cup canned tomato soup 2/3 cup vinegar 1/2 cup sugar l small onion, diced l tsp. salt l tsp. Worcestershire sauce juice of 1/2 lemon Blend above ingredients. Add l clove garlic and refrigerate 24 hours. Remove garlic. Shake and serve. Cathy Welch The ISLAND FOOD CO-OP pkg. jello (6 oz) orange or cherry cu s boi 1 ing I ater oranges can hole berry – cranberry sauce Dissolve ·ell in boiling water. Put orange quar-ere · thro gh food chopper, and add to _ jello, or chop in jello liquid in blender. Fold 1n who e erry – cranberry sauce, pour into mould or 9x9x2″ pan. Chi 11 for severa 1 hours before nmo lding. Makes 5 cups or 9 servings. Cathy Welch PO ATO SALAD Boil 6 potatoes. Peel, slice and cool to room temperature . Mix 6 tsp. oil, 3 tsp. vinegar, salt, pepper and diced green onions and add to potatoes. Brown 5 strips of bacon and crumble over potatoes. Serves 6. Eva Cappel 26 1 envelope unflavoured gelatin 1/2 cup water (for gelatin) 1 tsp. grated lemon rind 1/2 cup mayonnaise or salad dressing 6 tbs. water (for mayonnaise mixture) 1 can cranberry sauce jelly 1 cup finely chopped celery 1/2 cup finely chopped green pepper and lettuce 1. Soften gelatin in 1/2 cup water in a small saucepan; heat, stirring constantly, just until gelatin dissolves; remove from heat. 2. Measure 2 tbs. into a small bowl. Stir in mayonnaise or salad dressing, lemon rind and the 6 tbs. water. (Set remaining gelatin aside to cool for step 4). 3. Divide mayonnaise mixture evenly among the 8 individual salad moulds or custard cups. Chill 30 mins. or until stick-firm. 4. Break up cranberry sauce 1·/1 th a fork in a bowl. Stir in celery, green peppers, and remaining cooled gelatin. Spoon over sticky firm layer in moulds. Chill several hours. Serve on lettuce. S e r v e s 8. GREEN JELLIED. SALAD l s ma 11 ( 6 oz) l i me j e 11 o 1 small (6 oz) lemon jello Freda Lord Dissolve above in 2 cups of boiling water. Add the juice from one 15 oz. can of crushed pineapple and enough water to make up l½ cups liquid. Add 1/2 tsp. salt. Allow jello to partially set. Then beat in (by hand or electric mixer) l can crushed pineapple (minus juice) and 1 lb. cottage cheese. Chill in a large mould. (If you want a finer texture, push cottage cheese through a sieve before mixing in). Freda Ward 27 dressing: 1/3 cup sli d mushrooms cup coo ed garbanzo beans cup sliced scallions arti ho e hearts, quartered c pea liflower, flowerets head lettuce(if using leaf lettuce use one bunch) c ps raw spinach leaves tbs. sunflower seed kernels c p diced feta cheese tomatoes, sectioned tbs. sesame seed, toasted cup olive oil lemon juice to taste salt to taste fresh ground black pepper l clove garlic, crushed l tsp. tarragon l tsp. celery seed, ground 1/4 tsp. dry hot mustard 1/4 tsp. honey Preparation. Dressing – Combine all ingredients, blending well, make several hours before the meal so that flavours can mingle. Salad – Marinate the first 5 ingredients in 1/2 the salad dressing for 1/2 hr. Wash the leaves, drying thoroughly, and tear into pieces. Combine with marinated vegetables, sunflower seeds and cheese and toss, adding additional dressing as needed. Top with sesame and tomatoes. Serves 6. Susan Keene 28 HOUSES BY VILLAGE. GREEN BEAN SALAD (Quick and Easy) l 14 oz. can yellow beans l 14 oz. can green beans 1 14 oz. can kidney beans 14 oz. can baby lima beans 1/2 cup finely chopped onion Fresh cooked or frozen beans may be equivalent amounts. Dressing: 1/2 cup sugar 1/2 cup vinegar 1/4 cup vegetable oil l tsp. salt 1 tsp. pepper 1/2 tsp. basil 1-1/2 tsp. summer savory used in Combine all ingredients for dressing in small bowl and stir. Add one ice cube and beat until dressing is well mixed and slightly thickened. Remove ice cube, pour dressing over beans and toss gently so as not to break beans and serve. Serves 6-8. Mrs. H. Harvey 29 GREEN BEA’S MUSHROOMS 3 P g. frozen green beans 1 lb. mushrooms (or 2 cans) l e d. onion sliced l/2 c p butter or margarine / cup flour 2 cups 1va rm m ilk l cup light cream 3/ lb. grated sharp cheddar cheese 1/8 tsp. Tabasco sauce 2 tsp. soy sauce 1 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. pepper 1 tsp. accent 3/4 cup slivered toasted almonds saute the mushrooms and onion n buttr. Add flour and cook until smooth. Add this to milk and cram in top of double boiler. Add cheee and seasoning and stir constantly, until cheese 1s melt d. Cook and drain beans, mix with sauce and pour into a casserole. Sprinkle with almonds and bake at 3750 until it bubbles. May be made ahead and reheated . Serves 6. Lillian Hopp 30 TOMATOES WITH GARLIC CROUTONS cups bread cubes clove garlic cup butter oz. can tomatoes cup celery sliced cup onion sliced tsp. sugar tsp. salt Slice garlic very fine, saute in butter. Strain butter, pour on bread cubes and toss. Place tomatoes, juice from can, celery, onion, sugar and salt in casserole dish. Mix well and top with bread cubes. Bake 3500 for 1 hour. CARROTS WITH ONIONS lb. carrots stock 4 tbs. butter 1 lb. onions 3 tbs. flour Cathy welch Cut the carrots in thick round slices, and boil in stock (make the chicken cube stock) for 10 mins. In a covered frying pan, simmer the sliced onions in butter, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon. After 15 mins. stir in the flour, add the stock the carrots have been boiled in, and a dash of pepper. Bring to the boil, put in the ea rrots, and simmer t i 11 tender. The time this takes varies according to the quality of the carrots. When the carrots are done, the onion puree should be thick and creamy. You may add a pinch of sugar just before serving. Also add if desired 1/4 cup of white wine, or more to taste. Serves 4. Enid Cridland 31 Liz Barry 1 lb. dry cooking rice 1 small bag Bamboo Nasi Goreng eggs finely chopped meat or ham butter, fat or oil (salad oil) (Ba.boo Nasi Goreng available in any Dutch delicatessen store e.g. Simon de Groot, re Street, Toronto) 2s t e rice thoroughly and steam or cook it arJ. /hen the rice is done let it cool. Rice c ‘ed the previous day can also be used. Soften – e co tents of a small bag Bamboo Nasi Goreng in a little water on a low fire. Stir constantly o prevent burning. As soon as the water has a most e aporated, fry the Bamboo in butte, oil or fat then add the ham or meat and the rice. Fry th; whole lot for another 15-20 mins. stirring constantly. Make an omelette with the eggs. Co er the ilasi Goreng with strips of omelette and ser e with pickles and gherkins. To make the di s h hot t e r , add a l i t t l e ‘ Com i n ex Samba 1 ‘ ( a t D tch store also) NOTE: Add soyabean sauce to taste. Serves 5. Sjan Campfens 32 BOARDWALK NEAR WARD’S BEH GERMAN RED CABBAGE Red cabbage is the most popular dish in Germany. There are many different recipes in different areas. Our favourite is this one. Rasp: Blanche: coarsely 1 med. red cabbage (2 lbs) for a few seconds in boiling water, discard water Add: 2 large apples, peeled and chopped coarsely 2-3 tbs. goose fat or bacon dripping 1/3 cup of white vinegar 1/4 tsp. salt Cook at low heat for about 30 mins. To prevent burning, you may have to add small amounts of boiling water. Serves 6-8. Variation: use as many apples by weight as you use red cabbage. Luise Schoenborn 33 l medium seed and of water until no butternut squash or acorn squash. Peel, slice the squash. Steam in small amount n t i l tender. Dr a i n and rra s h 1-1 it h fork lumps are left. 1/2 cup butter or margarine l cup dark brown sugar 1-1/2 cups squash 2 eggs beaten 1/2 cup milk 1/4 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. maple flavouring dd butter to hot squash. Add all the other ingredients and mix well. Pour into a greased aking dish and bake. Oven 350 ° for 30 mins . Serves 6. POTATO PANCAKES 8 large raw potatoes l egg yolk l onion, grated l tbs. flour salt oil, lard or butter Marilyn McHugh Peel, mash and grate potatoes. Remove some of liquid by draining potatoes through sieve. Mix well with salt, egg yolk, flour and grated onion. Heat fat in frying pan, add 2 tbs. mixture per pancake. Spread as thin as possible. Fry both sides till brown and crisp. Serve hot with black coffee, fruit, sour cream or bean salad and cheese. Ute Lutz 34 ISLAND FIRE STATION NO 33 35 Dish for Men Li RATED CABBAGE ROLLS A recipe to cause your old Ukrainian granny to flinch with indignation. Cabbage (red or green) Cut it up coarsely and put it in a roasting pan or casserole for which there is a lid. (Sprinkle on some caraway seeds if available) Small Meatballs with Sauce Make these with minced meat and rice (1 lb. meat to 1/2 cup rice),an egg and your favourite seasonings; onions, garlic, thyme, basil ,parsley, allspice, salt, pepper, msg. etc. Put the meatballs on top of the cabbage . Sauce Add 1 can tomato soup and 1 can water. (Tomato juice, canned or fresh tomatoes, tomato aste thinned with water can be used). Do not stir just cover and place in 300° oven for 1 hr. Check at 30 mins. to see that there is sufficient liquid. (Add water or beer or \vine if liquid is needed). Can be cooked on top of stove in heavy pan at low heat. This can be made in large quantities for an inexpensive dish for a crowd. Increase the proportion of rice if the budget requires. Using brown rice is an interesting variation and adds nutritionally. Add ground ginger if there is anyone with a delicate stomach. Elizabeth Amer CORN P U D D I N G (Cass e ro l e) Make a thick white sauce (3 tbs. butter, 3 flour, l cup milk). Add chopped onion and chopped celery to the butter at the first. complete sauce, add: l cup bread crumbs large can creamed corn l cup grated medium cheese 3 slightly beaten eggs tbs. little To Put in casserole. Cook l hr. at 350°. Half way through put bacon bits all over top. These will cook during rest of baking. Serves 6. Anne McKenna 37 PORK CHU LAllLROLE 4 or 5 pork chops (for larger famili s double amount) 1 tin of cream of mushroom or chicken soup Add 1 tin of water mixed smooth 1 or 2 sliced onions 2 sliced carrots Cook in 300 ° oven about 2 hrs. This may be made with dried flaked onions and sliced potatoes and season to taste. 1 large tbs. Cheese Whiz is nice with this. Edith Ward VEAL AD HAM CASSEROLE (Use Leftovers) 10 Servings 1/2 1 b. veal ,boiled or roasted – diced 5 oz. (1 cup) ham, cooked and diced 1 cup carrots, cooked and diced l cup potatoes, cooked and diced l cup celery, II II II 3/4 cup onions, II II II l cup green peas, canned or frozen 4 oz. (1/2 cup) margarine l cup flour 4-1/2 cups meat stock Combine the meats and vegetables. Make a gravy with margarine, flour and meat stock and add to meat and vegetable mixture. Put in casserole dishes. Bake 325 ° oven for 20 minutes. Vernon Trotman 38 CASSEROLE 1/2 lb. side bacon l chopped onion l medium sized tin tomatoes dash pepper 1/2 tsp. salt 1/2 cup uncooked long grain rice Cut bacon in small pieces and fry with onion until crisp. Pour off excess fat. Add salt, pepper, tomatoes and bring to boil. Add rice. Stir occasionally. Add water or tomato juice, if it gets too thick. Cook in frying pan 30 mins. Cover with grated medium cheese and let melt before serving. Can also be poured in casserole and covered with cheese and put in 350 ° oven until hot and bubbly. This way the cheese melts all through the mixture. Serves 4. WARD’S ISLAND 39 Anne McKenna l lb. back spareribs 2-3 bunches new beets couple of stalks celery whole onion carrot few new potatoes some shredded cabbage l 20 oz. carton sour cream (room temp.) 1 medium can tomato juice pinch oregano l-2 bay leaves few peppercorns bunch parsley fresh dill weed a piece of sour salt about 1/4 inch 2 tbs. flour NOTE: Don’t cook in aluminum because it will make the soup curdle. Don’t salt the soup until the end because it affects the texture of the beets. Stick the spareribs in cold water (3 qts) and simmer. Wash beets thoroughly. (Try to buy beets with fresh new greens so you can chop leaves and stems). Julienne the beets and add to soup. Throw in an onion, carrot and celery whole. (You will remove these after an hour or so). Turn the heat up to boil. You will have to skim the froth off. Put the spices in cheesecloth bag and add. Soup should simmer about 2 hrs. Add the potatoes chopped up along the way and the parsley, as much cabbage as you want, and lots of fresh chopped dill about 1/2 hr. before done. When done, turn heat off. Add can of tomato juice. Add a little sour cream (room temp) to the flour and beat till the lumps are out. Then add this to the rest of the cream and beat. Add a little soup slowly and beat until cream turns good pink. Then stir this whole mess into the soup with suitable incantations or it will curdle. (You should really start the day with an augury or cook under a full moon or be a Ukrainian Grandmother for this bit of work, says my Ukrainian Grandmother, who likes to make it sound more difficult than it is). Add sour salt, reheat and serve with boiled whole new potatoes. Lynne Robinson 40 SOWFENCES, WARD’ BEACH TARRAGON CHICKEN CASSEROLE 2 chicken breasts 1 med. onion finely sliced 3/4 tsp. tarragon 1/8 tsp. poultry dressing 1/2 tsp. salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1/2 can cream chicken soup 2 tbs. milk 2 tsp. slivered almonds Arrange chicken skin side up in baking dish. Scatter onion, tarragon, poultry seasoning, salt and pepper over chicken, mix soup with milk, spoon over chicken. Bake uncovered at 375° for 40 mins. Sprinkle almonds over top of casserole. Bake 10 mins. more. Serves 2. Oonnie Envin 41 BUFFET DISH rOK Mt SAVuRY LIMA BEAN PO T 4 cups large dry limas, rinsed 4 tsp. salt 5 tbs. butter or margarine 2 med. onions sliced 1 green pepper diced 1/2 cup ketchup 1/2 cup molasses 2 tbs. vinegar 1/2 tsp. Tabasco 2 tsp. dry mustard to 3 cups diced ham Place rinsed limas and salt in 2 qt. boiling water. Simmer covered, 2 hrs. or until tender (add more boiling water if needed). Heat oven 3250. In 2 tbs. butter, saute onions and green pepper till tender. Mix ketchup, molasses, vinegar, Tabasco, mustard. When limas are tender, drain, reserving l :up liquid. Add this reserved liquid to ketchup ixture. In 3 qt. casserole or large bean pot, arrange in layers, limas, onion and pepper mixture, ham, pour on ketchup mixture. Dot with 3 tbs. butter. Bake uncovered 1-1/2 hrs. Serves 10-12. Bill Stevenson 42 l.JLl1LHE LOkkAINE 1 9″ pie crust unbaked l tsp. butter 3 slices Cdn. bacon 1/4″ thick (diced) 1 medium onion finely chopped 1/2 cup grated swiss cheese or Cdn. Old Cheddar Cheese 4 eggs slightly beaten l cup milk 1 cup heavy cream pinch grated nutmeg 1/2 tsp. salt 1/4 tsp. pepper In small saucepan, heat butter and add bacon and cook 5 mins. or until bacon is golden brown. Remove bacon and set aside. Add onions to pan and cook 5 mins. remove from pan. Cover bottom of pie crust with bacon, onion and 1/4 cup grated cheese. I mixing bowl, combine remaining cheese, egqs, milk, cream, nutmeg, salt, pepper. Mix wel pour over bacon mixture. Bake 450° for 15 mins. reduce heat to 3500 continue 15 mins. longer or until well set. Kathy Banky BEAN CASSEROLE l lb. hamburger 1 minced onion salt and pepper. Brown these ingredients and add: 1 tbs. worcestershire sauce l cup of ketchup 2 tsp. prepared mustard 2 tbs. brown sugar l can of baked beans (28 oz) Put into a casserole and bake 20 mins. or this can also be cooked in a large frying pan over a low heat. Stir often to prevent sticking if done in a frying pan. This can be prepared ahead of time and reheated. Sally Mills 43 BOARDWALK NEAR WARDS BEACH CURRIED CHICKEN CASSEROLE l small pkg. Uncle Ben’s long grained rice. (Prepare as instructions on pkJ Cooked chicken, boned and cut into b1te-s1ze pieces (could buy barbequed chicken or dip 2 half breasts and approx. 4 or 5 thighs in flour and fry in oil and butter). Saute l lb. sliced mushrooms or small whole mushrooms and one large chopped onion. Slice one can water chestnuts finely. Mix together l can cream of chicken soup, 1/2 cup milk, 4 tsp. curry powder. Mix all above ingredients together in large bowl. Add more milk if necessary for moisture and curry if desired. Pour into casserole and heat to piping hot in oven. Can be frozen for future use. Could add green pepper, etc. if desired. Freda Lord 44 CASSEROLE lb. Italian sausage, bulk pork sausage, or ground beef (or a mixture) l clove garlic minced l tbs. parsley flakes 1 tbs. basil 1-1/2 tsp. salt 1 can (1 lb.) tomatoes (2 cups) 2 6 oz. cans tomato paste (1-1/3 cups) 10 oz. lasagne or wide noodles 3 cups cream style cottage cheese 2 eggs beaten 2 tbs. parsley flakes 1/2 cup grated parmesan cheese 1 lb. mozzarella, sliced very thin· Brown meat slowly. Drain off fat. Add next 6 ingredients. Simmer uncovered about 30 mins. until sauce is thick, stirring occasionally. Cook noodles as directed, drain. Rinse in cold water. Combine cottage cheese, eggs, seasoning and parmesan cheese. Place half cooked noodles in greased 13x9x2 baking dish. Spread half cottage cheese mix over noodles, then half mozzarella cheese, half meat sauce. Repeat layers. Bake 375° for 30-40 mins. Let stand 15 mins. Serves 10-12. HAMBURGER CASSEROLE l lb. hamburger l cup rice 1/4 cup green onions 1/4 cup green peppers 2 tomatoes 1/2 cup mushrooms (chopped) Pam Mazza Brown hamburger in medium heat. Cook and cook for about and stir in well. Serves 4-6. fairly deep frying pan on the rice. Add both together 5 mins. Add all vegetables Let cook for about 10 mins. Peggy Mortimore 45 half-baked pastry case 9″ pkg. spinach, cooked and chopped, and drained 2 tbs. butter salt and pepper and nutmeg 1/2 lb. cottage cheese 3 eggs lightly beaten 2 oz. grated parmesan or strong cheese 6 tbs. cream Add butter to hot cooked spinach. Beat eggs in bowl, add cheeses, cream, seasoni ngs, spinach. Mix and pour into the pie shell. Sprinkle top with grated cheese or dried crumbs, bake at 375o for mins. Liz Barry MACARONI, PIZZA STYLE 1/2 1 b. lean ground beef, crumbled 1/2 cup chopped onion 8 oz. small elbow macaroni, cooked and drained 2 (8 oz.) or 1 (15 oz.) with tomato bits 1/2 cup 1-1ater 1/2 tsp. garlic salt 1/2 tsp. basil can tomato sauce 1/4 tsp. oregano 6 oz. mozzarella or cheddar cheese slices Choice of pizza toppings (sausage, salami, olives, anchovies, etc.) Brown crumbled beef and onion together in two (9″) pie plates in 425° oven, stir. Top with macaroni, then 1-1/2 cans tomato sauce with tomato bits, water, seasonings,toss. Top with cheese and toppings. Pour on rest of sauce. Bake 375 for 15 mins. Serves 6-8. Carolyn Bovaconti 46 ALGONQUIN BRIDGE 47 MEATS Baked Apple 1-1ith Sausage. 74 Barbecued Spareribs . 69 Beef Bourgogne. . . 57 Carbonade Flamande. . . . . 50 Cheese and Ham Supper Dish .. …… 73 Cherry Chicken ………. …. 63 Chicken in Foil 66 Chicken Breasts 61 Chinese Pork. . 68 Crumbly Chicken 64 Coq au Vin. . . 65 English Mince and Rice. 53 Flank Steak . . . 54 Garlic Chicken. . 62 Ginger Pork Spareribs . 71 Gourmet Meal on Low Budget. 70 Hawaii an Pork . . 75 Ham Ring Savannah . . 73 Lamb Curry. . . . . . 68 Liver and Onions with White Wine. 66 Macaroni with Chicken and Shrimps 63 Marinade. . . . . . 58 Mexican Curry Sauce . 60 Onion Pot Roast . . . 49 Oriental Mea tba 11 s. . 52 Oven Stew . . . . . . 49 Peachy Chicken Livers . . . . 64 Polynesian Pineapple Sizzlers 72 Pork Chops with Rice. 70 Quick Bearnaise Sauce for Beef Fondue 58 Red Currant Sauce . . . . 57 Rosy Meatba 11 s. . . . . . . 53 Sassartis – South African Curry . 67 Sauce Royale for Steak Fondue . . 51 Smith’s Beef Chunks with Barbecue Sauce 56 Spaghetti Sauce . . . . . . . . 59 Spicy Glazed Pork Chops . . . . . 76 Super Stew from New York Times. . 55 Sweet c.nd Sour Pork . . . . . . . 71 Toad in the Hole. . . . . . . . . 74 Tourtires – French Canadian Meat 73 West of Enyland Pastry. 50 48 POT ROAST 3 lb. pot roast 1 envelope Lipton Onion Soup Mix 1/2 tsp. thyme 1/8 tsp. garlic pinch of sugar 3/4 cup red wine 3 carrots, peeled and quartered 6 potatoes, peeled Place roast on foil, rub in soup mix. Place vegetables around. Add seasonings. Pour over wine and seal foil. Bake 350 ° for 2-1/2-3 hrs. Barbara Ropponen OVEN STEW lb. beef cut in cubes cup chopped celery carrots, cut large onion, sliced potatoes, quartered can tomatoes, or equal amount of fresh tbs. sugar tbs. minute tapioca salt to taste I pan_or kettle (I use a cast iron Dutch oven) w1th t1ght cover mix all ingredients well. Don’t brown beef first. Cover tightly and bake at 250° for at least 5 hrs. Don’t remove lid while baking. This is a meal we enjoy coming home on a cold day – and what is more: mother can sit down and relax together with the rest of the family. Gertie Weinhart 49 FLEMISH STEW l lb. ste\’ling beef l/2 lb. onions, chopped margarine 2 bottles beer (or water) salt, pepper garlic, bayleaf, thyme, any herb, optional Heat margarine in large frying pan. Add meat at high heat so that it will be brown on all sides. Put it aside. Then in same frying pan put some margarine and cook the onions. Then add onions to meat. In the frying pan heat beer and when liq id is warm add to onions and meat. Add salt, pepper, thyme, bay leaves and garlic. Cook slowly for about 2 hrs. Make gravy by adding a spoon of flour mixed with cold water. Boil for a few minutes and serve. WEST OF ENGLAND PASTRY 1 lb. plain flour 4 oz. margarine 4 oz. lard 1 4 salt, pepper, water lb. beef skirt (slow large potatoes 3 onions Miriam Waller cooking meat) Roll pastry to 6″ plate. Cut onions, meat and potatoes. Put a layer of potatoes, onions and meat on pastry. Pinch up edges to shape and close top of pastry. Makes 10. Bake 375o for 20 mins. on top shelf, 20 mins. middle , and then 20 mins. lower. Jean Parsons 50 SAUC E ROYALE FO R STEAK FONDUE 1 cup sour cream 1 pkg. Knorr onion soup 3 egg yolks, well beaten 1 tsp. lemon juice 1/2 tsp. Worcestershire sauce salt and pepper to taste Mix sour cream and onion soup. Add egg, lemon and Worcestershire sauce. Cook over low flame stirring constantly. DO NOT allow to boil. Remove from heat, continue to stir until sauce thickens. Serve cold. Betty Rowsome 51 ORIENTAL l/2 lb. of raw mince l/2 lb. of sausage meat l egg 4 medium onions 2 tbs. of bread soaked in water 2 tbs. flour 2 tbs. lard 3 tbs. sultanas l tbs. of caramelised sugar 3 or 4 tbs. mild vinegar Mix together the mince, sausage meat egg, chopped onion (l) and soaked bread from which the water has been pressed. Roll the mixture into small ball the size of a walnut: dip them in flour and fry in lard. Brown the remaining onions finely shredde in some fat; add the sultanas, the caramelised sugar, mild vinegar thinned with half its own quantity of water, salt and pepper. Put the meat balls in this sauce, and leave to simmer very gently for 30 minutes. Enid Cridland THE WILLIAM INGLIS 52 l lb. ground beef 1/2 cup bread crumbs l egg l tsp. instant mince onion l/4 tsp. dry mustard salt and pepper Shape into ping pong sized balls and braise in covered pan. Mix an 8 oz. can of tomato sauce with a l lb. can of whole cranberry sauce and pour over meat balls. immer for 1/? hr. Reheat just before serving. Serve with rice. Al ice A it ken ENGLISH MINCE AND RICE l lb. minced meat (hamburger 2 med. onions 18 oz. tin tomatoes Optional small tin tomato puree tsp. H.P. Sauce tsp. ketchup garlic powder olive oil or vegetable oil oxo cube extras: green pepper 3 sticks celery to you) In a Saucepan: Glaze the onions in the oil, add meat, cook until just past the pink stage, throw everything else in and cover saucepan. Stir occasionally – usually takes an hour of gentle simmering. The optional extra of pepper and/or celery should be added wih the onion. I have left out the genuine English touch which is to add flour at some stage as this makes what is a tasty dish a disgusting looking mess. John McHugh 53 tb. butte:r tbs. vinegar tsp. salt tsp. repper cup onions can tomato soup flank steak Cut steak in small pieces and sear in butter . Put in casserole for 2-1/2 hrs. at 3QQO – or – stuff l or 2 flank steaks with favourite bread stuffing and brown. Mix l beef oxo cube with l cup water. Pour over steak and simmer at 275 ° for approx. 2 hrs. until tender. Do not let boil dry. – OR – Roll flan steak jelly oll fashion and wrap with bacon strips. Secure with toothpicks. Cut between bacon strips making mignonettes. Broil cut side down 8 mins. on one side, then 5-10 mins. on other. If bacon not crisp stand mignonettes on edge and broil. Serve with sauteed mushroom caps. Joan McDonald 54 SUPER STEW FROM NEW YORK TIMES 4 lb. brisket of beef trirrmed of fat 1 lb. lean bacon 4 large onions, quartered 2 heads garlic (2 or more cloves) 2 strips orange peel l bayleaf 2 sprigs fresh thyme or l tsp. dried red wine to cover Prepare one day in Cut meat in cubes, Fry bacon in heavy Remove bacon advance 1-2 II casserole Cook meat, adding a few pieces in bacon fat till brown Season with salt and pepper. quarters Crumble bacon and add Add garlic in cloves at a time Add onion Add rest of ingredients and cover with wine Cover, and simmer for 3 hrs. Let dish cool and refrigerate, covered When cold, skim the fat Heat and serve. Serve 7-8. Julia Oldenburg 55 SMITH’S BEEF CHUNKS WITH BARBECUE SAUCE Two lbs. chuck steak – remove fat and cut into 1-1/2″ squares. Coat each cube in flour. Use skillet with bacon fat or coat with cooking oil. Spread the meat, turning the heat to moderate, letting the meat brown all over. For the sauce – take a bowl. In it put 2 tbs. of brown sugar, l tbs. of paprika, 2 tsp. of salt, l tsp. of dry mustard, 1/4 tsp. of chili powder, 1/8 tsp. of black pepper, 2 tbs. Lea and Perrins Worcestershire Sauce, 1/4 cup of vinegar, l cup tomato juice, 1/4 cup of chill sauce, 1/2 cup water, l large onion chopped, 1/2 cup chopped celery. Stir well and then pour sauce throughout the pan. Cover, lower to simmer for 2 hrs. Remove lid now and then to check. 45 mins. before serving time, prepare mashed potatoes (4 large ones). Finally about 20 mins. before serving remove the lid from skillet thus affording the sauce sufficient time to thicken. Place the mounds of mashed fluffed potatoes on plates, then pour sauce and beef on them. Serves 4. Sue Smith 56 BEEF BOURGIGNON 3 lb. chuck or top round of beef l onion sliced 2 cups red wine l sma 11 bay leaf 4 sprigs parsley pinch of thyme 2 tbs. salad oil 1/2 tbs. salt 1/4 tsp. pepper l small carrot sliced l clove garlic crushed 3 tbs. butter l tbs. flour 1/2 cup consonme 1/4 lb. salt pork diced 24 small white onions 1 cup mushrooms sliced Cut beef into 2″ cubes. In bowl combine meat onion, wine, bay leaf, parsley, thyme, oil, slt, pepper, carrot and garlic. Let stand 4 hours turning eat occasionally. Remove meat, pat dry; and strain marinade and set aside. In Dutch oven heat 2 tbs. butter. Add meat and cook until well browed. Add flour and cook for 3 mins. stirring continuously. Stir in consomme and marinade. Bring to boil. Cover and simmer 2 hours. In small saucepan, heat remaining butter. Add salt pork and onions and cook until golden brown. Remove to pan in which meat is cooking. Add Muhroorns. Cover and simmer 45 mins. Serve over boiled potatoes, buttered noodles or brown rice. Serves 6-8. Donna Cameron REDCURRANT SAUCE 1 cup redcurrant jelly 1/2 cup sherry Melt redcurrant jelly over moderate heat. Stir in sherry. Refrigerate. A decided improvement over cranberry sauce with cold sliced turkey. Caryn Gooch 57 1-1/2 cups salad oil 3/4 cup soy sauce 1/4 cup Worcestershire sauce 2 tbs. dry mustard 2-1/4 tsp. salt 1 tbs. pepper 1/2 cup wine vinegar 1-1/2 tsp. dried parsley 2 crushed garlic cloves 1/3 cup fresh lemon juice Combine and mix well. Marinate meat several hou:s for barbecued shishkabobs, etc. Marinade keeps well in refrigerator for a few 1•1eeks. Li 11 i an Hopp – QUICK BEARNAISE SAUCE FOR BEEF FONDUE l tbs. tarragon vinegar 1/2 grated onion 2 tbs. butter 1 cup mayonnaise 1 egg yolk, beaten 2 tsp. finely chopped tarragon In saucepan cook vinegar, onion and butter for a few minutes. In double boiler, heat mayonnaise and stir in vinegar mixture. Add beaten egg and tarragon and beat well. Yield: 1-1/2 cups. Betty Rowsome 58 OJIBWAY AVE., ALGONQUIN ISLAND SPAGHETTI SAUCE l lb. ground chuck 2 small onions 1 green pepper garlic powder tsp. sugar tbs. lemon juice dash of salt and pepper dash of thyme, oregano, and marjoram (more if you prefer it hotter) dash of tabasco sauce 1/4 cup of worcestershire sauce 2 small (612 oz) or 1 large can tomato sauce l cup ketchup If more sauce is desired, thin with tomato juice. Mince onion and green pepper. Saute until tender, in 2 tbs. butter. Add meat. Brown. Stir in remaining ingredients. Simmer in heavy saucepan over very low heat for about 2 hrs. Serve over hot cooked spaghetti. Make5 4 large se1·vi ngs. Lana Farmery 59 12 OMAHA A E, ALGONQUIN ISLAND MEXICAN CURRY SAUCE 3 tbs. cooking oil l/2 tsp. salt 6 tbs. chopped onion (uncooked) 3/4 tbs. curry pm·1der l tbs. flour l cup milk 6 tbs. chopped pepper (uncooked) In skillet, heat 3 tbs. cooking oil over medium heat. Add 6 tbs. onions. Cook until brown. Add 3/4 tbs. curry powder, l tbs. flour, 1!2 tp. sal to he onions. Stir. Pour l cup milk into onion mixture. Stir rapidly until smooth. Add green pepper to the sauce. Boil rapi ly for 2 min. Delicious poured over plate of rice, topped with shrimp. Suzanne Lapsley 60 1 chicken breast (boned) per person. Season with salt and pepper and dredge in flour. In a flameproof casserole, saute the breasts in 1/2 cup butter until golden brown. Add 2 cups chicken stock and bake, covered in a moderate oven 3500 until tender. Remove chicken from casserole and keep 1-1arm. To stock, add l cup port, l glass orange juice, l tbs.currant jelly, rind of l lemon and 1 orange and finely minced pulp of l orange and a pinch of ginger. Cook sauce 15 mins. Season to taste. Add enough corn starch,(mixed to a thin paste 1-1ith sherry) to slightly thicken. Return chicken to sauce and sirrrner a few minutes. Chris Pritchard 61 1 chicken (or 8 serving portions) 1-1/2 ozs. butter 4 tbs. olive oil 30 cloves garlic 10 shallots dry white ‘”i ne Melt the butter in an iron casserole(or any wide heavy-bottomed utensil with lid). Add the oil and heat until smoking. Arrange the chicken in the bottom of the casserole and brown on both sides taking care that the fat doesn’t burn. Chop shallots very finely and add to casserole with 30 cloves unpeeled garlic. Leave for 10 mins, so that skins are just coloured. Salt and pepper copiously and add a glass of dry white wine. Put on the lid and simmer for 30 mins. The chicken is cooked. Remove lid and raise heat so that the wine evaporates and the chicken browns once more. Don’t be shy, the garlic is divine. There is no over-powering smell as it has not been cut. Eat as a vegetable. 5 SENECA A £, ALGONQUIN ISLAND 62 lb. macaroni pint milk cup grated cheese oz. cooked chicken oz. shrimp tbs. melted butter salt, pepper, nutmeg, to taste eggs tomato Cook macaroni as usual. Beat eggs with milk, melted butter and seasonings. Butter 3 qt. fireproof dish. Put in layers as follows: macaroni, chicken, shrimps, cheese, sauce, chicken, etc. End up with the sauce. Put in preheated oven at 350° for 3/4 hours. Noodles can be used instead of macaroni. Serves 4-6. CHERRY CHICKEN 2 14 oz. cans bing cherries 6 good size chicken breasts salt, pepper, paprika 1/3 cup butter 3 tbs. flour 2 tsp. sugar Tilly Taylor 1/2 tsp. each ground allspice & cinnamon 2 chicken bouillon cubes Drain cherries reserving liquid. Skin and wash chicken, and sprinkle with salt, pepper and paprika. Brown chicken on all sides in hot butter. Remove from skillet. To butter in skillet, add 1/2 tsp. salt, the flour, sugar and spices, blend with drippings. Gradually stir in cherry liquid. Stir until slightly thickened. Add chicken pieces, cover and simmer for about 40 mins. until chicken is tender. 5 mins. before chicken is done add drained cherries. Put chicken on platter and cover with sauce and cherries. Good with steaming rice or dumplings. Mrs. H. Harve 63 chicken breasts fresh bread cheddar cheese 1/4 lb. butter parsley (flakes allowed) Skin chic-en. Melt butter. In blender put 3 parts bread broken to 1 part cheese plus parsley to taste. Mix. Dredge chicken in butter, then in crumbs. Pat extra crumbs on when in pan for a heavy coat. Bake for 1 to 1-1/2 hrs. Ellen Harris PEACHY CHICKEN LIVERS lb. fresh chicken livers, washed, drained and trimmed medium onion thinly sliced tbs. butter salt and pepper pinch thyme leaves cup hot water tsp. soy sauce tbs. favourite chili sauce and/or ketchup chicken oxo cube cup seedless green grapes cut in half fresh peaches peeled and sliced In large skillet brown onion in 1 tbs. butter. Add chicken livers and 1 tbs. butter if needed, salt, pepper and thyme. Brown on all sides. Add hot liquid mixture, lower heat and cook tenderly, stirring occasionally, partially covered until done and liquid reduced, about 10 mins. Add more hot water if necessary. When cooked, quickly fold in peaches and green grapes. Serve immediately with rice and fresh salad. Serves 2-4 depending on how much you like chicken livers. Gail Labonte-Smith 64 ALGONQUIN ISLMJD COQ AU VIN Disjoint a broiler or roasting chicken. Melt 3 tbs. butter or olive oil and brown lightly 1/4 lb. salt pork 1/4 cup chopped or minced onions 1 sliced carrot 3 minced shallots 1 peeled clove garlic Push vegetables aside and brown chicken; add and stir 2 tbs. flour 2 tbs. minced parsley 1 tbs. chervi 1 or marjoram 1/2 bay leaf 1/2 tsp. thyme 1 tsp. salt 1/4 tsp. fresh ground pepper 1 tbs. brandy S!ir in 1-1/2 cups dry wine or sherry, cover and simmer over low heat for l hr. or until done. Add 1/2 lb. mushrooms sliced. Serves 4. Maria Metcalfe 65 3 oz. butter 1/2 lb. onions peeled and thinly sliced l lb. liver seasoned flour dry 1vhite 1vine 1/4 pint stock l tbs. finely chopped parsley Fry the onions in half the butter, covered, for 8-10 mi ns. until they are soft. Remove lid and turn. Cook until golden. Remove. Trim the liver and toss in the flour (plastic or paper bag) and cook in the remaining butter until cooked 1-1hen you pour in the onions and fry for another few mins. Then you can splash on the wine and cook for a few mins. stirring constantly until you have a wonderful looking dish. Pour into a hot dish for the table, sprinkle with parsley and serve. Serves 4. CHICKEN IN FOIL 3/4 cup uncooked rice chicken portions salt l 6 oz. can mushrooms 2 zucchinis, sliced l green pepper l medium onion l 15 oz. can tomato sauce 1/2 tsp. oregano 1/2 tsp. red pepper sauce cheese John McHugh Put 3 tbs. rice in centre of 4(12″) squares of foil. Put chicken on top. Drain mushrooms. Divide mushrooms, zucchini ,green pepper and onion into 4 portions. Place l portion over each piece of chicken. Mix together tomato sauce, mushroom liquid and spice. Spoon over vegetables. Fold foil over to seal tightly. Bake l hr. 375 ° Before serving sprinkle each portion with parmesan cheese. Serves 4. Coryn Gooch 66 SASSARTIS – SOUTH AFRICAN CURRY 3 lbs. boneless lamb, lean 6 oz. pkg. dried apricots 3 onions sliced thin 2 cloves garlic chopped fine 1/8 tsp. cloves pinch cayenne 6 lemon or orange leaves (optional) 1 oz. curry powder 1 oz. sugar 1/2 tsp. salt 3 tbs. red wine 3 tbs. vinegar Cut lamb in 1-1/2″ squares. Remove all fat. Cover apricots with water. Simmer until soft. Remove apricots, saving liquid. Press through sieve. Heat 1/4 cup apricot liquid. Add onions and garlic, simmer 4 mins. Add apricot pulp, citrus leaves, curry, cloves, sugar, pepper, salt, wine and vinegar. Stir well, bring to a boil boil for 1 min. Add meat, marinate overnight in plastic or glass(not metal) container. Transfer to casserole. Cook, covered at 325° for 4 hrs. Serve with rice. Serves 6-8. Cathy Welch 67 1 3 lb. lamb, cut into small chunks l onion finely chopped l clove garlic finely chopped 2 tbs. flour 3 tbs. butter l tomato diced 1/2 tbs. chili powder l tsp. ginger l -2 tbs. good Indian curry po1-1der l tsp. ground cardamon 2 cups chic en stock 1 apple diced salt and pepper Melt butter in rying pan or saucepan. When hot, add lamb and brown on all sides. Remove from pan. Put onions and garlic in hot butter and cook gently ur.til onions are translucent. Mix flour, ginger, cardamon, chili powder, curry powder, black pepper in small bowl. Add to onions and garlic, ana cook 2 to 5 mins. Add meat to pan anc stir. Po r in chicken stock. Stir. Add to:’:latc and apple. Sirmier, covered for 1-2 hrs. ( nti tender). Serve over brown or white rice. Serves 2-6 (depending upon amount of meat. Stretches very nicely). Donna Cameron ChINESE PORK Get a pork roast and cut into slices about 1/4″ thick. Make a marinade of chopped garlic (at least 1 clove per slice),chopped fresh ginger (get in Chinatown),a liberal shot of mushroom soy (a kitchen soysauce, stronger and saltier than S perior China Lily, etc.) and some cooking snerry. v/ork the mixture into the meat with your hands and let sit for as long as you can spare – 24 hours doesn’t hurt. To Cook: baste the meat with honey and roast at a medium heat about 15-20 mins. a side until the surface is dark amber and crispy. Cook lots because it’s great. Seane Mccutcheon 68 2 strips of spareribs lemon s11ced thin 1 large on1on chopped 1 tsp. salt 1/4 cup v1negar 1 tsp. chi11 powder 1/4 cup worcestersh1re sauce 1 tsp. celery salt 1 cup tomato ketchup 1/4 cup brown sugar 2 cups water 2 drops tabasco sauce Cut ribs into serving portions. Salt and pepper each side and put in roasting pan meaty side up and sprinkle generously with onions. Bake uncovered in 450 ° oven for 45 mins. to brown. Drain off fat. Mix remaining ingredients in sauce pan and bring to boil. Pour sauce over ribs and reduce oven to 350° Put cover on the pan and bake 1 to 1-1/2 hrs. Mary Ward 69 GOURMET 1 lb. pork liver 1 tsp. salt 1/2 tsp. pepper 1 cup fl o r 2 onions 1 can toato paste 1 bottle red sour wine (Beaujolais, Claret) 1/2 c p b tter or margarine Cut liver into cubes, add salt and pepper. Roll it thro gh flour. Fry cut up onions slowly in argarine or butter. Add liver and fry slowly for 14 mins. Add tomato paste and 1 cup wine. Simmer for 10 mins. Add 1/2 cup wine and ready to serve with potatoes, rice, vegetable, etc. Makes 4-6 servings. John McHugh PORK CHOPS WITH RICE Brown 4-5 pork chops in frying pan. Remove from pan, pour off grease. Brown 1/2 – 3/4 cup rice in drippings. Add 1 clove garlic chopped 3/4 onions chopped 1 chicken bouillon cube 2 tsp. tumeric 1/2 tsp. salt pepper 2/3 cup water depending on amount of rice Place browned chops on top of mixture, cover simmer slowly about 45 mins. until chops are tender and water has evaporated. Good with and chili sauce. Kev-1pie Cox 70 SWEET AND SOUR PORK 2 lb. pork shoulder cubed 1 medium onion chopped l small tin tomato paste l cup water 1/4 cup vinegar 2 tbs. brown sugar l chicken bouillon cube 1/2 tsp. salt dash pepper 2 tsp. corn starch Brown pork lightly, add onion. Cook until soft. Add all other ingredients except corn starch. Simmer covered 1-2 hrs. Stir corn starch in a little cold water, add to pork mixture, sinmer until thick. Correct seasonings. Serves 4. GINGER PORK SPARERIBS 4 lb. pork spareribs 4 tbs. soy sauce 3/4 cup water 4 tbs. of ginger marmalade 1 clove garlic juice 1/2 lemon pepper Ann Maher 1/4 tsp. ground ginger l dessert spoon grated green ginger Place spareribs meaty side down in well-greased shallow baking dish. Roast in hot oven 425° 30 mins. Turn spareribs over, lower temperature to 350° . Continue cooking further 30 mins. Pour off excess fat from pan. Combine soy sauce, water, marmalade, crushed garlic, lemon juice, pepper and gingers. Blend thoroughly. Pour this sauce over spareribs, Cook another 3/4 hr. basting frequentl with sauce. Serves 6. Jean Elli 71 VI E.W FROM ALGONQUIN BRIDGE POLYNESIAN PINEAPPLE SIZZLERS 1 1 b. pork sausage 1 inks 1 can (10 oz) pineapple chunks 1/2 green pepper cut in strips 1/4 cup brown sugar 2 tbs. corn starch 1/2 cup onion syrup drained from pineapple 1/4 cup vinegar 1 tbs. soy sauce 2 stalks celery thinly sliced Drain pineapple chunks and reserve syrup. Cook sausages until browned. Pour off fat and drain sausages on paper towel. Cover with foil and keep warm. To about 1/4 of fat drippings in frypan,add green pepper, onion and celery. Cook until lightly br01-med. Add pineapple chunks. Mix brown sugar with corn starch,combine with syrup from pineapple,vinegar and soy sauce. Add mixture to frypan. Cook and stir until clear and thickened. Add sausages. Serve with rice. Serves 4. Carolyn Bovaconti 72 TOURTIERES (FRENCH CANADIAN MEAT PIES) 5 lb. minced lean pork (shoulder) 3 or 4 chopped onions 2 cups boiling water 2 or 3 chopped garlic buds 2 tsp. ground cloves 2 tsp. savory Mix well nd simmer for 30 or 40 mins. Pour into unbaked pie shells. Cut out a circle in dough to let steam escape, and bake at 425° for 15 mins. Reduce heat to 375° for 20 mins. Bon appetit! Maria Metcalfe HAM RING SAVANNAH l lb. ham (ground or chopped) 3/4 cup soft bread crumbs 2 tbs. finely cut onion 2 slightly beaten eggs 6 tbs. ketchup 1/8 tsp. pepper 1/4 cup of milk sprig of parsley chopped Pack firmly in well greased 711 ring mould. Bake in moderate oven 350° l hour or until firm. Nice to heat apricots or canned peaches to fill centre and put fresh vegetables around. Boil down syrup to make sauce and serve in sauce boat. Marilyn McHugh CHEESE AND HAM SUPPER DISH Bring 1-1/4 cup milk to boil. Add a knob of butter and a couple of slices of broken up bread. Let stand 5 mins. Add about l cup grated cheese and about l cup left-over chopped ham. Season. Stir in a couple of eggs. Turn into a buttered baking dish and bake at 425° until browned. Cooking time depends on depth of the dish. Serves 3-4. Liz Barry 73 BAKED APPLE WITH SAUSAGE , 1/2 cup sausage meat 1 apple Scoop out centre of apple, leaving a thick shell and cut all possible pulp from the core. Chop and mix pulp with sausage meat. Refill apple and bake at 400° until apple is tender, approx. 30 minutes. TOAD IN THE HOLE lb. sausages Yorkshire Batter Mix Gertie \.Jei nhart Precook sausages in hot salty water for about 10 mins. Meanwhile, mix up batter: l cup flour, 1 cup milk, 2 eggs, salt and pepper. Also if you like, a little garlic salt to taste. Let batter stand for about 10 mins. Melt grease in a flat pan about size of 10″x6″. I use a corning ware roasting pan. Use about 2 tbs. of grease and melt right down, pour in batter. Then place sausages in batter and place in a 375° oven for approx. 25 mins. You can also use broiler for last 5 mins to brown the top of yorkshire. Serves 4. Kay Walker 74 HAWAIIAN PORK l lb. pork tenderloin 2 eggs 1/4 cup flour l tsp. salt 1/4 tsp. pepper 1/2 cup salad oil 2 green peppers 4 stalks celery 2 chicken bouillon cubes dissolved in 1 cup water 1/2 cup pineapple chunks 1/2 cup pineapple juice 3 tbs. corn starch 1/2 cup sugar 3 tbs. soy sauce 1/2 cup vinegar hot cooked rice Chop peppers into l” squares. Chop celery into l” diagonal slices. Cut pork into 1″ cubes. Beat together eggs,flour,salt and pepper to make batter. Dip pork into batter and drop into hot oil 360°. Turn. Brown. Drain off excess oil. Add vegetables, 1/4 cup chicken broth.pineapple and juice to meat. Cover and simmer 10-15 mins. until vegetables are tender-crisp. Combine corn starch and sugar in saucepan. Blend in soy sauce, vinegar and remaining chicken broth. Cook, stirring until thick and clear. Pour over meat. Cover. Simmer another 5 mins. Serve over cooked rice. Serves 4. Lana Farmery TH£ BLUEBIRD 75 SPICY GLALU PORK CHOPS 2 loin pork chops (about 3/4″ thick) 1/4 can consorrrne 2 tbs. brown sugar, firmly packed 1-1/2 tsp. soy sauce 1/8 tsp. ginger 1/4 tsp. garlic sauce Trim fat from pork chops. In bOl-.,l combine brown sugar, soya sauce, ginger, and garlic salt. Dip pork chops into sauce and arrange on the bottom of 9″ pie plate or similar baking dish with shallow sides. Pour remaining sauce over chops. Cover pan with aluminum foil and bake in 3750 over 30 mins. Remove aluminum foil, turn pork chops and bake uncovered an additional 30 mins. Miss G. Mott 17 SENECA AVE.., ALGONQUIN ISLAND 77 FISH pinch of pepper pinch of sugar ingredients in covered pot and bring Simmer for 15 minutes. lb. haddock fillets, frozen, cut into small pieces. Continue cooking until fish is tender. cups milk Heat slowly not allowing mixture to boil. Garnish with chopped parsley. Serves 6. Freda Ward QUICK SALMON SOUP 8 oz. milk 1 large celery stalk, thinly sliced 1/4 cup fresh or frozen peas or green beans 1 fresh tomato onion flakes pinch thyme and savory leaves pepper 7-3/4 oz. can salmon – drained Heat milk, add celery, peas or beans, onion flakes thyme, savory and pepper. When vegetables are barely tender, add coarsely chopped tomato and add can of salmon. Break fish up into chunks. Heat through. Do not boil. Serve immediately. If desired, dot with butter. Serves 2-4. Gail Labonte-Smith 79 7 WYANDOT AVE., ALGONQUIN ISLAND MANHATTAN CLAM CHOWDER tbs. butter onion minced cup minced celery green pepper clove garlic, crushed cups cubed potatoes tsp. salt cups boiling water cans baby clams cups stewed tomatoes salt, pepper, thyme and tsp. melted butter tbs. flour tsp. chopped parsley cayenne Melt butter. Add onion, celery, green pepper, garlic and simmer 20mins. Add potatoes, sillt and water. Cook 20mins. Add remainder. Blenc.Jl tsp. melted butter and flour, stir into soup to thicken, bring to boil. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve. Harry Rogers 80 CRUSTY TUNA CASSEROLE 1 can condensed cheese soup 1 cup milk 2 cups cooked rice 2 cans tuna fish 1/4 cup chopped parsley 3/4 cup cornflake crumbs 2 tbs. melted butter Combine cheese soup and milk in greased casserole. Arrange layers of rice, tuna, parsley and cheese soup mixture. Combine cornflakes with butter and sprinkle over tuna mixture. Bake in hot oven 425° for 15 mins. Serve hot – 6 servings. Sally Livingstone MOM’S FISH CHOWDER lb. fillet sole or haddock potatoes qt. milk cups onions pepper and salt crushed crackers tbs. butter Fry onions. Boil potatoes until cooked and put in milk with onions, chopped fish, crackers and butter. Cook until fish is done. She puts parsley flakes on top with little pieces of fried pork fat. Brenda Willis 5 cups flour 2 tsp. baking powder l cup sugar 1/2 lb. butter or marg. 1/4 lb. Fluffo Shortening 1/2 lb. cottage cheese 2 cups raisins l cup almonds, chopped fine 2 eggs 1 small p g. citrate (1/2 cup) few grains nutmeg juice of 1/2 lemon Optional: 1 tbs. rum or 20 drops rum flavour or 4 drops arrack flavour drops almond flavour or 2 tbs. rum l tsp. vanilla few grains cloves Sift flour, aking powder, make a hallow in mixt re and add eggs and sugar. Mix lightly. Cut in shortening and marg. in small pieces. Sift cottage cheese over mixture. Add spices, almonds, raisins and chopped peel. Mix like a dough with both hands. Shape into a loaf and place on baking sheet on piece of wax paper. Bake 300° for 50-60 mins. Test 1-,ith stra1-1 of broom. While warm, spread top with l tbs. butter and sieve 1/2 cup icing sugar on top. Wendi Hanger 110 KUSE’S MUFFINS 14-16 Muffins Preheat oven to 400° 1/2 cup shortening 1/2 cup sugar 2 eggs 2 cups Kellogg’s All-Bran 1-1/2 cups buttermilk l cup wheat germ l cup whole wheat or rye flour l tsp. salt 2 tsp. baking powder l tsp. baking soda Optional: 1/2 cup raisins or l or 2 bananas. Cream shortening with sugar. Add eggs and buttermilk, then bran. Add rest of ingredients. OLD FASHIONED SCONES 1/2 cup sugar 3 cups all purpose flour l smal 1 tsp. baking soda l tsp. salt 1 cup lard 3/4 cup sour milk 1 cup raisins Rose Wilson Sift flour, soda and salt – rub in lard – add sugar, raisins and sour milk. Mix well. Spoon mixture into 2 greased 9 11 pie plates. Bake 400° for 10 mins. then 350° for 20 mins. or until very lightly browned. These are very good if sour cream is used instead of sour milk. Alice Aitken 111 CINNAMON BRAID BREAD Makes 1 large or 3 small braids 1-1/3 cups milk l /3 cup butter l/2 cup sugar 1/2 tbs. salt l/4 cup luke1″arm ,.,,ater 1 tsp. sugar l en elope dry yeast 1 egg, we 11 beater 4-4-1/2 cups sifted all purpose flour 1-1/2 tsp. cinnamon l egg yolk, slightly beaten 1 tbs. sugar Scald milk, stir in but er, 1/2 cup sugar and salt. Cool to luke\/arm, measure luke1-1arm water into bo1>1l, stir ir 1 tsp. sugar.
Sprinkle 1>1ith yeast. Ld stand 10 mins. stir
well. Stir in lukewarm milk mixture, well
beaten egg, 3 cups floui· and cinnamon. Beat
until smooth and elastic. Gradually work in
additional flour to make a stiff dough.
Place batter in buttered bowl, brush top with
melted butter. Cover, let rise in warm place
until double in bulk, 1-1/2 hours. Punch down
dough and knead until sriooth. Divide dough
into 3 equal portions. Shape each into a long
strand and braid strand; together to form loaf.
Place on lightly buttered cookie sheet. Cover,
let rise in v1arm place until double in bulk,
30 mins. Brush braid with lightly beaten egg
yolk and sprinkle 1,1ith 1 tbs. of sugar. Bake
350° for 40 mins.
Susan Godin
112
GREEN BOATHOUSE, ALGONQUIN ISLAND
HOME OF THE ‘SEA HAWKS’
113
DESSERTS
ULAU LKUM STEAMED PUDDING
2 cups dry bread crumbs
1/2 cup melted margarine
1/2 cup molasses
1 egg
1/2 cup milk
3 tbs. flour
1 tsp. salt
l tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 cup raisins
Mix all ingredients and pour into medium-sized
buttered pudding bowl. Steam 2 hrs. Serve
with pudding sauce .
PUDDING SAUCE:
1/3 cup white sugar
3 tbs. flour
2 tbs. butter
l tsp. lemon or vanilla flavouring
2 cups (or more) water
Cook over medium heat for 5-10 minutes. Serves 6.
Doris Collis
CHERRY DELIGHT
For 9 – 10″ baked crust or graham wafer crust.
Cream together:
4 oz. Philadelphia Cream Cheese
1/2 cup scant powdered sugar
1/2 tsp. vanilla
dash of salt
Add to this 1/2 pint whipping cream, whipped.
Fold in cream lightly. Pour into pie shell and
top with
1 can (or 1/2) cherry pie filling.
Refrigerate 12 hours. Serve
Li 11 i an Hopp
115
RASPBERRY SIIRL
3/4 cup graham cracker crumbs
3 tbs. butter
2 tbs. sugar
3 eggs
8 oz. cream cheese
1 cup sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
1 cup whipping cream
1 pkg. frozen raspberries
Combine crumbs, butter and sugar. Press lightly
into greased 7 x 11 x 1½” pan. Bake 375° for
8 mins. Chill. Beat 3 egg yolks until thick,
add cream cheese, sugar and salt. Beat until
smooth and light. Beat 3 egg whites until stiff.
Whip cream until stiff. Fold egg whites and
cream into cheese mixture. Crush in blender or
with fork frozen raspberries. Swirl half through
cheese filling and spread mixture on crust. Spoon
remaining puree over top, swirling with knife.
Freeze. Let stand at room temperature 20 mins.
before serving.
Maureen Smith
116
MARY’S HOME MADE ICE CREAM
2 eggs
2 cups milk
3/4 cup sugar
1 tbs. vanilla
1/4 tsp. salt
1 pint whipping cream
Separate eggs. Make a custard of the milk, egg
yolks and sugar. Cook over hot water till
thickened.
Beat egg whites till stiff.
egg whites. Mix thoroughly.
Cool. Add cream. Freeze in
cream maker.
APPLE NUT DELIGHT
1-1/4 cup sugar
4 eggs, 1vell beaten
2/3 cup flour
1 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2 cup apples, peeled,
l cup chopped 1va 1 nuts
Pour hot custard over
Add salt, vanilla.
old fashioned ice
Freya Godard
chopped
Beat eggs with electric mixer, add sugar and
continue beating at high speed – about 5 mins.
Sift together flour, baking powder, salt. Fold
into egg mixture. Lightly mix in apples and
nuts. Pour into greased 13x9x2″ pan or two 8″
pans. Bake at 350° for 40-45 mi ns. Serve on
its own, warm or cold, or with ice cream or
whipped cream. It can be baked ahead of time
and re-warmed. Serves 8 – 10.
A1111 llalier
TRIFLE
doz. lady fingers, split in 2 g1v1ng
you 24. Allow to dry overnight. Or Stale plain cake
2 pkgs. frozen strawberries or raspberries,
thawed and drained.
28 oz. tin sliced peaches or any other
fruit.
1/4 cup chopped or toasted almonds. Do not
salt or butter almonds, just toast them.
2 6 oz. pkgs. Jello – banana cream custard
(make custard a little on thin side,
until it coats spoon – DO NOT allow to
bo i 1
6 cups milk, used in custard
1 pint whipping cream
Wine, rum, brandy, or apricot brandy.
Break up about 8 single ladyfingers and place in
bottom of bowl, put some strawberries and a little
of juice on them and about 6 tbs. of wine or rum
and sprinkle on a little of the toasted almonds.
Cover completely with a layer of custard.
Continue with another layer of ladyfingers and
sliced peaches and about 6 tbs. of brandy and
almonds and another layer of custard. Continue
in this manner, reserving some of the peaches
and almonds for garnishing. Finish with a layer
of custard and top with whipped cream and garnish.
Yvonne Stein
118
BROKEN GLASS CAKE
1 red jelly powder
1 green jelly powder
l lemon jelly powder
1 pint whipping cream
1/2 cup sugar
1 envelope plain gelatin
1/2 cup cold water
1/2 cup hot water
1/4 cup pineapple juice
Base: 18 single graham \vafers,•rolled
1/2 cup sugar
1/3 cup butter
1/2 tsp. lemon flavouring
Mix and press in 9″ pan.
Dissolve each jelly powder in 1-1/2 cups hot
\vater. Pour each into separate pans so jelly is
1!2″ thick or more. Chill until firm. \hip crearr
with sugar. Dissolve plain gelatin in cold, then
hot water. Add pineapple juice. Chill until
thickening, add to whipped cream. Cut jelly into
cubes and place in large chilled bowl. Add other
combined ingredients and fold gently together.
Put on top of crumb base, chill. Serves 12. May
be made a day ahead.
Pam Mazza
119
QUIET LAGOON
SCUFFLE OMELET FLAMBE
4 egg yolks
3 tbs. v,ater
1/4 tsp. salt
4 egg vthi tes
2 tbs. butter
glazed apple (i.e. apples sliced and
poached in a little sugar and water,
mixed with apricot jam, lemon juice
and rum)
sugar
little rum
Beat egg yolks until thick and lemon coloured.
Beat in water and salt. Beat egg whites until
stiff and fold into yol mixture. Heat butter
in pan. Pour in l /3 of mixture. Cook over l ov,
heat until fluffy and 1 ightly brovmed on the
bottom about 5 mins. Finish in preheated oven
325° until golden brown, about 12-15 mins.
Loosen and slide onto v1arm platter. Cook 2 more
omelettes with remaining two thirds of mixture.
pread with filling, fold and sprinkle sugar and
Just before serving, sprinkle with rum and ignite.
Serves 3.
Tilly Taylor
120
6 cups fresh white bread crumbs
( 12 s 1 ices)
1/4 cup butter or margarine
1/3 cup firmly packed brown sugar
4 lbs. cooking apples
1/2 cup granulated sugar
dash cinnamon
1 12 oz. jar raspberry jam or preserve
Make applesauce with apples, water and white
sugar. Preheat oven to 350°. Butter a 7″
spring form pan or baking dish. Melt butter
or margarine in frying pan, add brown sugar and
bread crumbs; saute till bread crumbs are gol9en
and crisp. Add dash of cinnamon.
Place a layer of bread crumbs in base of baking
pan or dish, then a layer of applesauce, then a
layer of raspberry jam or preserve. Continue
in layers, ending with a layer of bread crumbs.
Bake for 20 mins. Cool thoroughly. Unmold and
cover completely with whipped cream. Decorate
with raspberry jam. Serves 8.
Maria Metcalfe
MY MOTHER’S LEMON PUDDING
1 cup sugar
2 tbs. butter
3 eggs (separate whites)
1-1/2 cups milk
4 tbs. flour
5 tbs. lemon Juice
grated rind of 1 lemon
Mix butter and sugar, add beaten egg yolks.
Add flour, lemon juice, rind and milk. Beat
egg whites until stiff, fold in.
Put in individual pyrex cups or large bowl in
pan of hot water (roasting pan will be fine).
Bak 1/2 hr. or until top is brown at 325°.
Barbara Roerick
121
l egg – beaten lightly
Add: l/2 cup sugar
Add: small piece of butter, melted
l/2 cup milk
l large cup flour
2 level tsp. baking powder
l tsp. vanilla
Chocolate
Sauce:
level tbs. butter
cups boiling water
tbs. flour (salt)
square baking chocolate
tbs. sugar
tsp. vanilla
Melt chocolate, add butter and flour. Add boiling
water and sugar, salt. Cook until thickened.
Ms. Generality
BANANAS IN BRANDY
Melt an ounce of butter and an ounce of brown
sugar in a heavy pan. Slice bananas lengthwise
and fry, turning them. When soft and golden,
dollop in the brandy and serve with loads of
cream. – It can be cooked in the oven while you
eat the first course.-
Liz Barry
NUTMEG CRAPPLE
Beat lightly soured cream until stiff, but with
no hint of going to butter. Add a tbs. of brown
sugar and a tsp. lemon extract. Also a generous
amount of grated nutmeg. Then lightly mix with
thick apple sauce. Garnish with walnut meats.
Rose Wilson
122
WILLOW, BEHIND ST ANDREW-BY-THE-LAKE
THE ENIGMA
White wine and Pineapple pudding
It looks a very plain pudding indeed; it tastes
almost outrageously good. (Proper stirring is
very important).
l cup pineapple juice
1 cup dry white wine
20 oz. marshmallows
1 pint heavy cream
In a heavy saucepan, slowly heat the wine and
the juice. Add marshmallows and stir mixture
over low flame until marshmallows have melted.
Remove from heat and allow to cool. When
mixture has cooled through and through (3 hrs.)
whip the cream (do not add any sugar) and add
to mixture. Stir until completely blended.
This will take a bit of stirring because of
marshmallows’ stickiness. Transfer to a glass
serving dish and chill in freezing compartment
of refridge for 4 hrs. During first hr. of
freezing, stir it with a folding motion a few
times. Serves 8.
Mary ford
123
SNAKE ISLAND
PEACHES IN HINE
2-3 small trifle spcnge cakes
3 oz. ground almords
l tbs. grated ora,,ge rind
l tsp. lemon juic
8 peaches
sugar
v1hi pped cream
Crumble sponge cakes and mix with ground almonds
and finely grated orange rind. Bind in lemon
juice. Cut peaches in half and remove stones.
Scoop out a little flesh to make holes larer.
Sandwich them together with mixture. Put 1n
fireproof dish. Pour in wine and sprikle sugar
over fruit. Put in 310° oven for 10 m,ns. or
until sugar is crisp. Serve with whipped cream.
Su Nash
124
Nectar of the Gods
Use your own amounts for this refreshing,
simple and very elegant dessert.
Oranges, sliced thinly across
Sliced bananas
Canned diced pineapple and juice
The above is roughly equal portions.
Sprinkle a good amount of diced coconut
over the fruit. Then as much port as you
can get into the bowl (use a good sized
bowl). I use a bottle for 8-10 servings.
Lynne Robinson
CHERRY COBBLER
Melt: l stick butter in deep Pyrex dish at 375° .
Mix: l
cup sugar
cup flour
tsp. baking powder
tsp. salt
Add 3/4 cup milk and butter, beat smooth. Pour
in dish and over this pour:
l can sour pitted cherries and juice
Do not stir. Bake at 350° for l hour. Serves 6.
Cathy Welch
125
1-1/2 cup graham cracker crumbs1/3 cup melted butter
3 tbs. sugar
Combine crumbs and sugar. Add butter. Pour 1/3
cup into fruit juice can. Must be one with
straight sides (48 oz. size), butter first. Press
mixture firmly into e en layer on bottom of can.
Chill in freezer.
l can Eagle Brand Milk
2 eggs, separated
1/2 cup lemon juice
l cup crushed strawberries
Beat egg yolks until thick. Add Eagle Brand Milk
and blend. Add lemon juice and crushed strawberries.
Mix thoroughly. Beat egg whites until
stiff and fold into strawberry mixture. Pour into
can and top with half of remaining crumb mixture.
Freeze overnight. Just before serving, cut bottom
from can. Run knife around edge of crust and push
through can. Roll in remaining crumbs and cut.
I couldn’t find a can with straight edges, so just
put in a pan. It seemed a lot easier.
Joan McDonald
CHOCOLATE BREA D PUDDING
2 cups scalded milk
1-1/2 cups bread crumbs
2 tbs. cocoa
4 tbs. sugar
l egg
salt and vanilla
Add crumbs to scalded milk, add chocolate.
Beat egg, sugar, salt and vanilla, and add to
first mixture. Bake till set. Serve with cream
or white sauce. Set in pan of water while baking.
Ms. Generality
126
ST ANDREW-BY-THE.-LAKE, BUILT IN 13
127 –
COOKIES – BAR – CANDIES
CHRISTMAS FRUIT DROPS
cup soft shortening
cups brown sugar
eggs
cup sour milk
cups sifted flour
tsp. soda
tsp. salt
cups coarsely chopped pecans
cup mixed candied peel
cup halved candied cherries
cups cut up dates
Mix shortening sugar and eggs thoroughly. Stir
in milk. Sift flour, soda and salt, and blend
into first mixture. Add nuts and fruit (chill}.
Drop by rounded teaspoonful, 2″ apart on 1 ightly
greased cookie sheets. Bake at 400° for
8 – 10 mins. Makes 6 doz. These can be made
into little balls and frozen until needed. They
taste much better warm from the oven.
CHRISTMAS SHORTBREAD COOKIES
1 lb. butter
4 cups sifted flour
(measure before sifting}
cup brm-1n sugar
Yvonne Stein
Cream butter and sugar, then mix flour in well.
Roll dough out to about 1/4″ thickness and cut
with cookie cutters. If you are making them for
Christmas, put little pieces of green and red
cherries in the centre of each cookie – cherries
out of the small bottles – not glazed cherries.
If you are not making them for Christmas, you may
use nuts or raisins or chocolate chips. Fill
cookie sheet with the shortbreads. Put them in
at 225°, then turn right away to 250° for 15 mins,
then turn to 300° – look at them often so they
won’t brown too much.
Eleanor Porter
129
l cup Crisco
l cup brown sugar
l well beaten egg
l tsp. vanilla
1 cup flour
1 tsp. baking soda
1 tsp. salt
2 cups oatmeal
Cream Crisco, then add sugar gradually, beating
all the time. Add egg and vanilla; beat some
more. Sift in flour, salt and baking soda –
beat in well. Add oatmeal and mix well. Put
on ungreased cookie sheets in little balls –
flat·en with a wet fork. Bake about 10 mins
in 350 oven. Makes around 4-1/2 doz. small
cookies.
Yvonne Stein
WILDLIFE. SANCTUARY
130
BISCUITS
1/2 cup butter
1/2 cup castor sugar or white sugar
l tbs. corn syrup
l cup all purpose flour
2 cups rolled oats
l tsp. bicarbonate of soda
4 tbs. boiling water
Cream butter and sugar, add corn syrup, and cream
well. Blend in sifted flour and oats. Dissolve
soda in boiling water and add to mixture while
still hot. Mix to a stiff dough. Roll tsps. of
mixture into balls; place on greased baking tray
allowing room for spreading; press flat. Bake
in moderate oven, 350° approx. 15 mins. Cool on
trays. Makes approx. 4 doz.
Note: 3 oz. flaked almonds can be added with the
oats.
THIMBLES
cup butter
cup sugar
egg yolks
cups flour
tsp. salt
cup wheat germ
egg \vhites
Jean E 11 iott
Cream butter and sugar. Add egg yolks, flour,
and salt. Thoroughly mix together. Take on
heaping teaspoon of cookie batter, form into
ball, dip into egg white and roll in 1heat germ.
Cook in oven at 350° until brown – approx. 10
rnins. While cooking indent each ball with knife
handle. Remove from oven, indent gently again
and fill hollow with favourite jam or jelly.
Yields approx. 2 doz.
Bonnie Erwin
131
l cup butter
l cup white sugar
l cup brown sugar
2 eggs
2 cups all-purpose flour
l tsp. salt
1 cup walnuts
l cup potato chips, crushed
Mix and bake at 375 ° for 15 mins. Yield 4 doz.
Madeleine Walwyn
GLACE LACE COOKIES
1/2 cup softened butter
2 cups packed dark brown sugar
2 eggs
3/ 4 cup flour
2 tsp. baking powder
l /2 tsp. sa 1t
Cream butter with sugar. Beat in eggs one at a
time. Stir in flour, baking powder and salt.
Spread foil on cooking sheets and butter lightly.
Drop dough onto foil, measuring half tsps. 2″
apart. Do not flatten. These cookies spread.
Bake at 400° 4-5 mins. or until carmel brown.
Remove from oven and lift one. If it sticks,
put back in. Do not try to remove from foil
when hot. Place foil in refrigerator for 5 mins.
or so and then peel off foil. Use foil again and
again, not necessary to rebutter. Use 2 or more
cookie sheets. Makes approx. 18 doz. Kids 1 ove
them.
Joan McDonald
132
CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOW COOKIES
3 semi-sweet chocolate squares
3 tbs. butter
l cup icing sugar
1/2 pkg. miniature marshmallows
l egg
1/2 cup walnuts
vanilla
coconut
In double boiler, melt chocolate squares and
butter. Let cool. Add sugar, vanilla, egg and
walnuts. Mix. Add marshmallows. Roll on waxed
paper covered with shredded coconut. Refrigerate.
Slice.
Freda Currie
133
2 eggs
2/3 cup white sugar
2/3 cup flour
1 tsp. baking powder
1/3 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 cup chopped dates
1/2 cup raisins
3/4 cup walnuts
Beat eggs until foamy. Add sugar. Add flour
sifted with baking powder and salt. Add vanilla,
fruit and nuts; beat thoroughly. Spread in
greased 8″ pan. Bake 30 mins. at 350° . Cut in
bars while wann. Sprinkle with fruit or icing
sugar.
Ann Maher
CHERRY-PINEAPPLE SQUARES
Bottom: 2 cups flour
1 cup butter
4 tbs. white sugar
Press in pan. Bake 15 mins. at 325°.
Filling:
Cook until
Meringue:
2
4
Spread and
20 oz. can crushed pineapple
cup white sugar
cherries, halved
tbs. cherry juice
tbs. corn starch
quite thick and pour 0ver bottom.
wEll beaten egg whites
tbs. white sugar
bake till light brown at 375°.
Doreen Green
134
1/2 cup butter
1/4 cup white sugar
3 tbs. cocoa
Stir until smooth in saucepan and then add
1 beaten egg
Cook one minute and add
2 cups graham wafer crumbs
1 cup coconut
1/2 cup walnuts – chopped
Spread in pan and press down (9″x9″). Next
mix: 1/4 cup butter
2 cups icing sugar
2 tbs. custard powder
canned milk and
1/2 tsp. vanilla to make an icing not
too soft.
Spread
dish.
Melt:
this mixture over ingredients in baking
Set in fridge for a few minutes.
2 squares chocolate (unsweetened)
1 tsp. butter
Spread on top. Put in fridge.
Wendy Saunders
ST. ANDREW’S BY-THE-LAKE
135
SWEDISH TEA RINGS
Cream 1/2 cup shortening or butter Add 1/4 cup bro1vn sugar, firmly packed l tsp. vani 11 a Separate l egg – beat yolk and add to above mixture Add cup pastry flour
Shape this mixt re into small balls. Dip these into unbeaten egg white. Roll in finely chopped nuts. Place on greased cookie sheet and press hole in centre of each with thimble or finger. Bake in slow oven 300° for 5-10 mins. Remove from oven and again press hollow in centre of each. Add strawberry or raspberry jam in each hollow. Place back in oven for another 5-8 mins. or until very light brown in colour. Check constantly.
Eileen Merrick
BRIDGE NEAR ROYAL YACHT CLUB
136
GINGERBREAD WITH WALNUT TOPPING
cups all-purpose flour tsp. baking soda tsp. salt tsp. ginger tsp. ground cloves tsp. cinnamon cup shortening (room temp.) cup granulated sugar eggs cup table molasses cup boiling water cup light brown sugar (finnly packed) tbs. all-purpose flour cup melted butter cup chopped walnuts
Sift flour, baking soda, salt, ginger, cloves, cinnamon together 3 times. Cream shortening and sugar until smooth. Add eggs and beat until very light and fluffly. Stir in molasses. Add flour mixture alternately with boiling water, stirring just until smooth. Turn into well greased, wax paper lined 9″ square cake pan. Bake in 350° oven, 50-55 mins., or until centre tests done with a toothpick. Remove from oven. Spread on topping made from mixing: brown sugar, flour, butter, walnuts. Bake 10 minutes longer. Suzanne Lapsley
LEMON ICE CREAM SQUARES
Bottom:2 cups graham wafer crumbs
1/2 cup melted butter 2 tsp. white sugar
Press in pan saving a little for top.
Melt: l pack lemon jello in
l cup boiling water
Add: 2 tsp. lemon juice
Add: l brick vanilla ice cream
Stir and pour over bottom. Sprinkle crumbs on top. Keep refrigerated until firm.
137
Dore-Green
CORNER OF OMAHA AND WAYANDOT
LEMON MERINGUE SQUARES
Bottom layer:
cup butter
cup white sugar
cups flour
tsp. baking powder
tsp. salt
Put all together, mix
Bake 10-12 minutes.
well. Put in 8×8″ pan.
Filling:
3/4
2
1-1/2
grated rind and juice of 1 lemon
cup 1vhite sugar
egg yolks
heaping tbs. corn starch
pinch salt
piece butter size of v-1alnut
l cup hot 1vater
Put altogether and cook until thick. Cool.
Cover bottom layer with lemon.
Meringue: 2 egg whites, beaten stiff
4 tbs. sugar
Put over lemon, brown in oven.-
Sally Livingstone
138
YUMS
1-1/4 cups flour
1/2 cup butter
l tbs. brown sugar
Mix together until it is like crumbs and put into
a square pan. (Pour over this)
2 eggs – beaten
1-1/2 cups brown sugar
2 tbs. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
l tsp. vanilla
l cup shredded coconut
l cup chopped walnuts
Mix this together and pour over the first group
of ingredients. Bake at 350° until golden brown.
DREAMS
Mix: 3/4
1-1/2
cup butter with
cup; flour
Eileen Merri ck
Press it in a pan and bake for l5mins. Mix
together:
Spread on
Icing:
cup; brown sugar
cup broken walnuts
cup shredded coconut
tbs. flour
tsp. baking powder
eggs
pinch salt
top of pastry. Bake 375° for 25 mins.
1-1/2 cup; icing sugar
rind and juice of l lemon
butter the size of an egg
Spread on 1vhile still rot. Cut in squares v1hen
thoroughly cold.
Margaret Wilson
139
cup sugar
cup butter
orange
lemon
cup sifted flour
grated rind of l
grated rind of l
egg – s epa rated
cup chopped nuts (walnuts, pecans or
peanuts)
Cream sugar and butter well. Work in flour,
orange rind, lemon rind, and egg yolk. Work
together thoroughly with hands. Make into 24
small balls. Roll in slightly beaten egg
whites, then in chopped nuts. Place on greased
cookie sheet and flatten with fork to 1/4″ thick.
Oven 350° – 15 mins. Makes 2 doz.
ALMOND FINGERS
8
1-1/2
2
oz. butter
cups soft brown sugar
cups self raising flour
(Brodies) (Loblaws)
egg
Nina Kilpatrick
Rub butter into flour, add sugar, mix well.
Separate yolk and stir into mixture. Spread
onto greased cookie sheet (approx. l Ox 15″) with
wet palate knife and generously wipe over with
beaten egg white. Sprinkle with sliced almonds.
Bake at 325° for 40-50 mins. Cut into squares
Very good.
Alice Aitken
140
2 tbs. butter
3 cups brown sugar
2 tsp. corn syrup
2/3 cup milk or cream
1/2 cup nuts
1/2 tsp. vanilla
Add first 4 ingredients into a large iron frypan.
Stir constantly over medium heat until sugar
dissolves. Cook without stirring until temp.
reaches the soft ball stage (235-240). Remove
from heat. Don’t stir. Let cool until hand can
just be held on bottom of pan. Add nuts and
vanilla. Beat with a wooden spoon until mixture
starts losing its gloss. Pour immediately into
a buttered pan.
Susan Godin
CANDIED CRANBERRIES WITH ORANGE RIND
In a saucepan, combine 1 cup each of sugar and
water and bring the mixture to a boil. Add the
slivered rind of l orange and cook the syrup
until it begins to thicken. With a slotted
spoon, remove the orange rind to a sheet of wax
paper and reserve it. To the saucepan, add 4
cups cranberries, 3 whole cloves, 1/2 tsp. of
ground cardamon and a small piece of cinnamon
stick. Cook the mixture over low heat for
about 6 to 10 mins. or until the berries begin
to pop. With a slotted spoon, remove the
berries to a bowl and continue cooking the
syrup until it is thick. Discard the cloves
and cinnamon stick and pour the syrup over the
cranberries. Chill the cranberries and scatter
the reserved orange rind on top.
Marilyn Belisle
141
PRALINE BROWNIES
1/2 cup margarine (softened)
1 cup sugar
2 eggs
1 cup all-purpose flour
1/4 cup chocolate chips (melted)
1 cup chopped nuts
Cream together margarine and sugar. Add eggs,
beat until fluffy. Add flour and chocolate
chips. Stir in nuts. Mix thoroughly. Spread
evenly in well greased 9″ square cake pan. Bake
in 350 oven 25 mins. Spread evenly with
PRALINE TOPPING. Return to oven 10 mins. Cool.
Cut into 16 squares.
Praline Topping
3/4 cup finely packed brown sugar
3/4 cup chopped nuts
1/4 cup margarine (melted)
2 tbs. milk
1/2 tsp. vanilla extract
Blend thoroughly.
BUTTERSCOTCH CANDY
2 cups sugar
2/3 cup corn syrup
1/4 cup water
1/4 cup cream
1/4 cup butter
nuts if desired
Mandy McHugh
In saucepan mix sugar, corn syrup, water and
cream. Bring to a boil stirring constantly.
Cook, stirring often, until hard ball stage
(260). Add l/4 cup butter, cook, stirring
until hard crack stage (280). Add nuts if
desired (filberts are excellent). Pour into
buttered 811 square pan. When almost set, cut
into squares. When cold break and store in
tight container. Yield l-1/4 lb.
Kathy Banky
142
ISLAND PUBLIC SCHOOL AND NATURAL SCIENCE SCHOOL
143
PRESERVES
BREAD AND BUTTER PICKLES
3 qts. cucumbers (12 cups}
1 qt. onions ( 4 cups)
3 green peppers
3 red peppers
1/2 cup salt
6 cups white sugar
2 tsp. turmeric
2 tsp. mustard seed
white vinegar
Slice unpeeled cucumbers and onions thinly.
Remove cores from peppers and cut in little
pieces. Add salt and sufficient water to just
cover and let stand overnight. Drain. Add
rest of ingredients and vinegar to barely
cover and boil for 5 mins. Bottle in 8 pint
sealers
12 medium cucumbers equal 12 cups sliced.
A 6 qt. basket makes 2 recipes. I have a salad
attachment for my Braun mixer. I use the slicing
blade for cucumbers and onions and shredding
blade for peppers. Ethel Hanger
145 –
COLD WATEK UlLL ICKLES
Place green dill or 2 ts. dill see? in the
bottom of a jar. Pack vnth small firm cucumbers.
Add:
tbs. of non-iodized salt
clove garlic
tsp. sugar
1-3/4
l
l
1/2 cup white vinegar __
pinch of mustard seed, ch1l1 peppers,
pickling spices (optional)
Put sprig of green dill on top. Add cold water
to overflowing. Invert jars to make sure they
don’t leak. Store upright in a cool place. You
can make pickles one jar at a time with this
recipe. Only takes 5 minutes.
Harriet Bennett
BREA AD BUTTER PICKLES
6 large cucumbers
4 medium-sized onions
l cup salt
4 cups water
Mix together the above ingredients and let stand
3 hrs. Drain well in cold water rinsed through
a sieve. Add the syrup as follows:
2 cups sugar
1 level tsp. turmeric powder
1/4 tsp. ground cloves
1 tbs. white mustard seed
1 tsp. celery seed
2-1/2 cups white vinegar
Heat syrup to scalding hot, stirring to dissolve
sugar. Add cucumber mixture. Mix well and heat
but do not boil. Put in sterilized sealers at
once.
Edith Ward
146
RAW SAUCE
8 qts. ripe tomatoes
4 large red peppers
4 bunches celery
12 onions
4 tbs. ground cinnamon
2 tbs. ground cloves
1 dessert spoon cayenne pepper
1 cup sa 1t
2 cups brown sugar
white wine vinegar
Finely chop onions, tomatoes, peppers, and
celery. Place in 3 gal. crock. Add salt,
stir and let stand overnight. In the morning,
drain off liquor, add other ingredients .
Cover with white wine vinegar and stir well
with wooden spoon: Add more sugar or cayenne
pepper as desired.
Keep crock covered in cool place. Stir
occasionally. Age at least 4 weeks – the
older, the better. May also be bottled or
recipe halved .
Gail Labonte-Smith
10 OJIBWAY AVE., ALGONQUIN ISLAND
147
ALBEMARLE PEACH CHUTNEY
7 lb. finn fresh peaches
16 fl. oz. cider vinegar
2 lb. dark brown sugar
1/2 cup grated onion
2 lb. seedless raisins
5 apples, peeled and diced
2 tsp. white mustard seed
1/4 cup scraped ginger root
or 3 tsp. ground ginger
tsp. salt
tsp. paprika
tsp. cumin powder
grated rind and juice of 2 lemons
Peel and cut peaches (makes about 3-1/4 qts) in
slices about 3/4″ thick. Cover with vinegar and
brown sugar. Set aside. Combine all remaining
ingredients and cook over low heat, stirring
constantly, until the mixture is thoroughly
blended. In a separate saucepan, cook the peach
mixture for several minutes or until peaches are
tender but still hold their shape. Combine both
mixtures and cook together for a few minutes.
Pour into sterilized jars and seal securely. This
is an old American recipe, so allow for 8 oz ..
American cup.
Jenny deTolly
148
BEST EVER CHILi SAUCE
l peck (12-14 lb) tomatoes, large
l lb. celery (about 2 bunches)
l quart small onions
3 green peppers
l/2 tbs. ground cloves
l tbs. dry mustard
2 sticks cinnamon
2 lb. brown sugar
1/4 cup salt
l qt. cider vinegar
and a palmful of pickle spices
Scald and peel tomatoes. Cook 15 mins. Drain
off half the juice. Chop remaining vegetables;
add tomatoes and sirrrner about 1-1/2 hrs. Tie
spices in cloth bag, add with remaining
ingredients to tomato mixture. Continue cooking
1-1/2 hrs. or until vegetables are soft. Remove
spices; seal in hot sterilized jars. Makes 10 pints .
Laurel Stevenson
LEMON CURD
cup sugar
grated zest (thinly) and juice of
2 large lemons
2 well beaten large eggs
Blend in a small pan and heat over slow heat
stirring constantly and cook until mixture
thickens. Cool and pour in jar and cover.
Store in refrigerator.
Freda Lord
149
CUCUMBER RELISH
Put through food chopper
7 large ripe cucumbers
7 large onions
Add 3 tbs. pickling salt
Let stand for 2 hours or more. Drain well.
Add 3 cups vinegar
3 cups sugar
1 cup 1-1a ter
Let come to a boil.
Add tsp. ginger
tsp. tumeric
a little cayenne pepper
Add 1/2 cup flour, diluted
Boil for 10 mins. and store in jars.
Rose Wilson
PRUNE CONSERVE
4-1/2
1/2
1/4
l
7-1/2
1/2
cup chopped prune plums
cup water
peel from l lemon and 1/2 orange
cup lemon and orange juices (mixed)
cup chopped walnuts
cup sugar
bottle fruit pectin (Certo)
Add water to chopped prune plums and simmer for
5 mins. Thinly slice orange and lemon peels
(as for marmalade) Combine simmered plums, peel,
juice, walnuts and sugar. Bring to rolling boil
for 1 min. add fruit pectin and remove from heat.
Stir for 5 mins. removing any foam with a metal
spoon. Pour into sterilized jars and seal with
immediately.
Doris Collis
150

Breaking Point -Toronto Island erosion

Breaking Point -Toronto Island erosion

Breaking Point – Toronto Island Erosion

  • By-Line: Enzo DiMatteo
  • Published by: NOW Magazine
  • Date: 09-14-2017
  • Provenance: Assembled by Ted English from NOW website;  TRCA documents via Eric Zhelka
  • Notes: See updates from The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority posted below this article

… and from The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority:

Erosion threatens Toronto Islands

Erosion threatens Toronto Islands

Document: Web page of Toronto Globe and Mail.

By-line: Daniel Rotztain, Special to the Globe and Mail

Date: 11-25-2016

Provenance: From the archives of Ted English

Digitized by: Ted English.  Web page and text adapted to page format